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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(9): 1652-1654, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097327

ABSTRACT

We compared antibody and T-cell responses against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine strain spike protein to responses against the Omicron variant in 15 messenger RNA vaccine recipients. While these individuals had significantly lower levels of antibodies that inhibited Omicron spike protein binding to ACE2, there was no difference in T-cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac479, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051517

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a patient with AIDS who had persistent infection with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant for >80 days. The variant contained mutations that were not present in other Delta viruses in our hospital. Prolonged infection in immunosuppressed individuals may lead to evolution of SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017773

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the decay kinetics of COVID-19 vaccine-elicited SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells. In this study we show a modest decline in the frequency of these T cells at 6 months and demonstrate robust expansion in response to antigen and recognition of spike peptides from the delta variant.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992159

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We report that increased levels of pre-existing antibodies to seasonal coronaviruses are associated with decreased antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in SOTRs, supporting that antigenic imprinting modulates vaccine responses in this immunosuppressed population.

5.
AIDS ; 36(9): 1315-1317, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931985

ABSTRACT

Current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines induce robust SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with HIV (PWH). However, the rate of decay of effector immune responses has not been studied in these individuals. Here, we report a significant waning of antibody responses but persistent T-cell responses 6 months post vaccination in virally suppressed PWH with high CD4+ T-cell counts. These responses are comparable with those seen in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104048, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines elicit strong T and B cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in both SARS-CoV-2 naïve and experienced patients. However, it is unknown whether the post-vaccine CD4+ T cell responses seen in patients with a history of COVID-19 are due to restimulation of T cell clonotypes that were first activated during natural infection or if they are the result of new clones activated by the vaccine. METHODS: To address this question, we analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cell receptor repertoire before and after vaccination in 10 COVID-19 convalescent patients and 4 SARS-CoV-2 naïve healthy donor vaccine recipients. We used the viral Functional Expansion of Specific T cells (ViraFEST) assay to quantitatively identify specific SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronavirus CD4+ T cell clonotypes post COVID-19 disease resolution and post mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. FINDINGS: We found that while some preexisting T cell receptor clonotypes persisted, the post-vaccine repertoire consisted mainly of vaccine-induced clones and was largely distinct from the repertoire induced by natural infection. Vaccination-induced clones led to an overall maintenance of the total number of SARS-CoV-2 reactive clonotypes over time through expansion of novel clonotypes only stimulated through vaccination. Additionally, we demonstrated that the vaccine preferentially induces T cells that are only specific for SARS-CoV-2 antigens, rather than T cells that cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2/common cold coronaviruses. INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a new antigen-specific repertoire and sheds light on the differential immune responses induced by vaccination versus natural infection. FUNDING: Bloomberg∼Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, The Johns Hopkins University, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, NCI U54CA260492, NIH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Transplantation ; 106(7): 1440-1444, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), necessitating additional booster vaccinations. The Omicron variant demonstrates substantial immune evasion, and it is unknown whether additional vaccine doses increase neutralizing capacity versus this variant of concern (VOC) among SOTRs. METHODS: Within an observational cohort, 25 SOTRs with low seroresponse underwent anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin (Ig)G testing using a commercially available multiplex ELISA before and after a fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose (D4). Surrogate neutralization (percent angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibition [%ACE2i], range 0%-100% with >20% correlating with live virus neutralization) was measured against full-length spike proteins of the vaccine strain and 5 VOCs including Delta and Omicron. Changes in IgG level and %ACE2i were compared using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Anti-receptor-binding domain and anti-spike seropositivity increased post-D4 from 56% to 84% and 68% to 88%, respectively. Median (interquartile range) anti-spike antibody significantly increased post-D4 from 42.3 (4.9-134.2) to 228.9 (1115.4-655.8) World Health Organization binding antibody units. %ACE2i (median [interquartile range]) also significantly increased against the vaccine strain (5.8% [0%-16.8%] to 20.6% [5.8%-45.9%]) and the Delta variant (9.1% [4.9%-12.8%] to 17.1% [10.3%-31.7%]), yet neutralization versus Omicron was poor, did not increase post-D4 (4.1% [0%-6.9%] to 0.5% [0%-5.7%]), and was significantly lower than boosted healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although a fourth vaccine dose increases anti-spike IgG and neutralizing capacity against many VOCs, some SOTRs may remain at high risk for Omicron infection despite boosting. Thus, additional protective interventions or alternative vaccination strategies should be urgently explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Transplant Recipients , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779508

ABSTRACT

BackgroundBreakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated individuals have been previously associated with suboptimal humoral immunity. However, less is known about breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant.MethodsWe analyzed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and cellular responses in healthy vaccine recipients who experienced breakthrough infections a median of 50 days after receiving a booster mRNA vaccine with an ACE2 binding inhibition assay and an ELISpot assay, respectively.ResultsWe found that high levels of antibodies inhibited vaccine strain spike protein binding to ACE2 but that lower levels inhibited Omicron variant spike protein binding to ACE2 in 4 boosted vaccine recipients prior to infection. The levels of antibodies that inhibited vaccine strain and Omicron spike protein binding after breakthrough in 18 boosted vaccine recipients were similar to levels seen in COVID-19-negative boosted vaccine recipients. In contrast, boosted vaccine recipients had significantly stronger T cell responses to both vaccine strain and Omicron variant spike proteins at the time of breakthrough.ConclusionOur data suggest that breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant can occur despite robust immune responses to the vaccine strain spike protein.FundingThis work was supported by the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Vaccine-related Research Fund and by funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease intramural program as well as awards from the National Cancer Institute (U54CA260491) and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease (K08AI156021 and U01AI138897).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hypersensitivity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
10.
Elife ; 112022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742932

ABSTRACT

Preexisting antibodies to endemic coronaviruses (CoV) that cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 have the potential to influence the antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination and infection for better or worse. In this observational study of mucosal and systemic humoral immunity in acutely infected, convalescent, and vaccinated subjects, we tested for cross-reactivity against endemic CoV spike (S) protein at subdomain resolution. Elevated responses, particularly to the ß-CoV OC43, were observed in all natural infection cohorts tested and were correlated with the response to SARS-CoV-2. The kinetics of this response and isotypes involved suggest that infection boosts preexisting antibody lineages raised against prior endemic CoV exposure that cross-react. While further research is needed to discern whether this recalled response is desirable or detrimental, the boosted antibodies principally targeted the better-conserved S2 subdomain of the viral spike and were not associated with neutralization activity. In contrast, vaccination with a stabilized spike mRNA vaccine did not robustly boost cross-reactive antibodies, suggesting differing antigenicity and immunogenicity. In sum, this study provides evidence that antibodies targeting endemic CoV are robustly boosted in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not to vaccination with stabilized S, and that depending on conformation or other factors, the S2 subdomain of the spike protein triggers a rapidly recalled, IgG-dominated response that lacks neutralization activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1268-1270, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699639

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that certain vaccines induce suboptimal responses in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PLWH). However, responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have not been fully characterized in these patients. Here we show that the BNT162b2 vaccine induces robust immune responses comparable to responses in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
13.
JCI Insight ; 7(5)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662370

ABSTRACT

Benchmarks for protective immunity from infection or severe disease after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are still being defined. Here, we characterized virus neutralizing and ELISA antibody levels, cellular immune responses, and viral variants in 4 separate groups: healthy controls (HCs) weeks (early) or months (late) following vaccination in comparison with symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 after partial or full mRNA vaccination. During the period of the study, most symptomatic breakthrough infections were caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant. Neutralizing antibody levels in the HCs were sustained over time against the vaccine parent virus but decreased against the Alpha variant, whereas IgG titers and T cell responses against the parent virus and Alpha variant declined over time. Both partially and fully vaccinated patients with symptomatic infections had lower virus neutralizing antibody levels against the parent virus than the HCs, similar IgG antibody titers, and similar virus-specific T cell responses measured by IFN-γ. Compared with HCs, neutralization activity against the Alpha variant was lower in the partially vaccinated infected patients and tended to be lower in the fully vaccinated infected patients. In this cohort of breakthrough infections, parent virus neutralization was the superior predictor of breakthrough infections with the Alpha variant of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
J Clin Invest ; 132(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642991

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that vaccinated individuals harbor T cells that can cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 and endemic human common cold coronaviruses. However, it is still unknown whether CD4+ T cells from vaccinated individuals recognize peptides from bat coronaviruses that may have the potential of causing future pandemics. In this study, we identified a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitope (S815-827) that is conserved in coronaviruses from different genera and subgenera, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, multiple bat coronaviruses, and a feline coronavirus. Our results showed that S815-827 was recognized by 42% of vaccinated participants in our study who received the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) COVID-19 vaccines. Using T cell expansion and T cell receptor sequencing assays, we demonstrated that S815-827-reactive CD4+ T cells from the majority of responders cross-recognized homologous peptides from at least 6 other diverse coronaviruses. Our results support the hypothesis that the current mRNA vaccines elicit T cell responses that can cross-recognize bat coronaviruses and thus might induce some protection against potential zoonotic outbreaks. Furthermore, our data provide important insights that inform the development of T cell-based pan-coronavirus vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Peptides/immunology
15.
Am J Transplant ; 22(4): 1253-1260, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583700

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and breakthrough infections are more common. Additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses increase anti-spike IgG in some SOTRs, but it is uncertain whether neutralization of variants of concern (VOCs) is enhanced. We tested 47 SOTRs for clinical and research anti-spike IgG, pseudoneutralization (ACE2 blocking), and live-virus neutralization (nAb) against VOCs before and after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose (70% mRNA, 30% Ad26.COV2.S) with comparison to 15 healthy controls after two mRNA vaccine doses. We used correlation analysis to compare anti-spike IgG assays and focused on thresholds associated with neutralization. A third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose increased median total anti-spike (1.6-fold), pseudoneutralization against VOCs (2.5-fold vs. Delta), and neutralizing antibodies (1.4-fold against Delta). However, neutralization activity was significantly lower than healthy controls (p < .001); 32% of SOTRs had zero detectable nAb against Delta after third vaccination compared to 100% for controls. Correlation with nAb was seen at anti-spike IgG >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the Euroimmun ELISA and >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the MSD research assay. These findings highlight benefits of a third vaccine dose for some SOTRs and the need for alternative strategies to improve protection in a significant subset of this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
16.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 131(10):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1556841

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown T cell cross-recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronavirus spike proteins. However, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed CD4· T cell responses to spike peptides from SARS-CoV-2 and 3 CCCs (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) before and after study participants received Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine recipients showed broad T cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and we identified 23 distinct targeted peptides in 9 participants, including 1 peptide that was targeted in 6 individuals. Only 4 of these 23 targeted peptides would potentially be affected by mutations in the UK (B.1.1.7) and South African (B.1.351) variants, and CD4+ T cells from vaccine recipients recognized the 2 variant spike proteins as effectively as they recognized the spike protein from the ancestral virus. Interestingly, we observed a 3-fold increase in the CD4+ T cell responses to HCoV-NL63 spike peptides after vaccination. Our results suggest that T cell responses elicited or enhanced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines may be able to control SARSCoV-2 variants and lead to cross-protection against some endemic coronaviruses.

17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDRecent studies have reported T cell immunity to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in unexposed donors, possibly due to crossrecognition by T cells specific for common cold coronaviruses (CCCs). True T cell crossreactivity, defined as the recognition by a single TCR of more than one distinct peptide-MHC ligand, has never been shown in the context of SARS-CoV-2.METHODSWe used the viral functional expansion of specific T cells (ViraFEST) platform to identify T cell responses crossreactive for the spike (S) glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs at the T cell receptor (TCR) clonotype level in convalescent COVID-19 patients (CCPs) and SARS-CoV-2-unexposed donors. Confirmation of SARS-CoV-2/CCC crossreactivity and assessments of functional avidity were performed using a TCR cloning and transfection system.RESULTSMemory CD4+ T cell clonotypes that crossrecognized the S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and at least one other CCC were detected in 65% of CCPs and unexposed donors. Several of these TCRs were shared among multiple donors. Crossreactive T cells demonstrated significantly impaired SARS-CoV-2-specific proliferation in vitro relative to monospecific CD4+ T cells, which was consistent with lower functional avidity of their TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 relative to CCC.CONCLUSIONSOur data confirm, for what we believe is the first time, the existence of unique memory CD4+ T cell clonotypes crossrecognizing SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs. The lower avidity of crossreactive TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 may be the result of antigenic imprinting, such that preexisting CCC-specific memory T cells have reduced expansive capacity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed to determine how these crossreactive T cell responses affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.FUNDINGNIH funding (U54CA260492, P30CA006973, P41EB028239, R01AI153349, R01AI145435-A1, R21AI149760, and U19A1088791) was provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, The Johns Hopkins University Provost, and The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provided funding for this study.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Male , Middle Aged
18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171752

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown T cell cross-recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronavirus spike proteins. However, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed CD4+ T cell responses to spike peptides from SARS-CoV-2 and 3 CCCs (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) before and after study participants received Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine recipients showed broad T cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and we identified 23 distinct targeted peptides in 9 participants, including 1 peptide that was targeted in 6 individuals. Only 4 of these 23 targeted peptides would potentially be affected by mutations in the UK (B.1.1.7) and South African (B.1.351) variants, and CD4+ T cells from vaccine recipients recognized the 2 variant spike proteins as effectively as they recognized the spike protein from the ancestral virus. Interestingly, we observed a 3-fold increase in the CD4+ T cell responses to HCoV-NL63 spike peptides after vaccination. Our results suggest that T cell responses elicited or enhanced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines may be able to control SARS-CoV-2 variants and lead to cross-protection against some endemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6631-6638, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDT cell responses to the common cold coronaviruses have not been well characterized. Preexisting T cell immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported, and a recent study suggested that this immunity was due to cross-recognition of the novel coronavirus by T cells specific for the common cold coronaviruses.METHODSWe used the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay to characterize the T cell responses against peptide pools derived from the spike protein of 3 common cold coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) and SARS-CoV-2 in 21 healthy donors (HDs) who were seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 and had no known exposure to the virus. An in vitro expansion culture assay was also used to analyze memory T cell responses.RESULTSWe found responses to the spike protein of the 3 common cold coronaviruses in many of the donors. We then focused on HCoV-NL63 and detected broad T cell responses to the spike protein and identified 22 targeted peptides. Interestingly, only 1 study participant had a significant response to SARS-CoV-2 spike or nucleocapsid protein in the ELISPOT assay. In vitro expansion studies suggested that T cells specific for the HCoV-NL63 spike protein in this individual could also recognize SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peptide pools.CONCLUSIONHDs have circulating T cells specific for the spike proteins of HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-OC43. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins were present in only 1 participant and were potentially the result of cross-recognition by T cells specific for the common cold coronaviruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether this cross-recognition influences coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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