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Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 70(3): 129-139, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259050


INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 induces coagulopathy associated with an increase of thromboembolic events. Due to the lack of agreement on recommendations for thromboprophylactic management, the aim of this study was to study the dosages of LMWH used in critically ill COVID-19 patients assessing the effect on their outcome. METHODS: We evaluated data of the Reg-COVID19. According to LMWH dose two groups were analyzed: prophylaxis and treatment. Primary outcome was the relationship of LMWH dosage with mortality. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of thrombotic and bleeding events, length of ICU stay, invasive mechanical ventilation, and thrombotic and inflammatory parameters. RESULTS: Data of 720 patients were analyzed, 258 in the prophylaxis group and 462 in the treatment group. C Reactive Protein, invasive mechanical ventilation, tocilizumab and corticosteroid treatments were related with the choice of LMWH dose. Hemorrhagic events (66/720, 9.2%) and thrombotic complications (69/720, 9.6%) were similar in both groups (p = .819 and p = .265), as was the time course of the thrombotic events, earlier than hemorrhagic ones (9 [3-18] and 12 [6-19] days respectively). Mortality was lower in prophylaxis group (25.2% versus 35.1%), but once an inverse probability weighting model was applied, we found no effect of LMWH dose. CONCLUSION: We found no benefit or harm with the administration of therapeutic or prophylactic LMWH dose in COVID19 critically ill patients. With a similar rate of hemorrhagic or thrombotic events, the LMWH dose had no influence on mortality. More studies are needed to determine the optimal thromboprophylaxis protocol for critically ill patients.

COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Prospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(2): 308-312, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645217


BACKGROUD: COVID-19 coagulopathy linked to increased D-dimer levels has been associated with high mortality (Fei Z et al. in Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet (London, England) 395(10229):1054-62, 2020). While D-dimer is accepted as a disseminated intravascular coagulation marker, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) also detects fibrinolysis (Wright FL et al. in Fibrinolysis shutdown correlates to thromboembolic events in severe COVID-19 infection. J Am Coll Surg (2020). Available from [cited 14 Jun 2020]; Schmitt FCF et al. in Acute fibrinolysis shutdown occurs early in septic shock and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality: results of an observational pilot study. Ann Intensive Care 9(1):19, 2019). We describe the ROTEM profile in severely ill COVID-19 patients and compare it with the standard laboratory coagulation test. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU were prospectively enrolled after Ethics Committee approval (HCB/2020/0371). All patients received venous thromboembolism prophylaxis; those on therapeutic anticoagulation were excluded. The standard laboratory coagulation test and ROTEM were performed simultaneously at 24-48 h after ICU admission. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) scores were calculated at sample collection. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included with median SOFA-score of 4 (2-6), DIC-score of 1 (0-3) and SIC-score of 1.8 (0.9). Median fibrinogen, D-dimer levels and platelet count were 6.2 (4.8-7.6 g/L), 1000 (600-4200 ng/ml) and 236 (136-364 109/L), respectively. Clot firmness was above the normal range in the EXTEM and FIBTEM tests while clot lysis was decreased. There was no significant correlation between ROTEM or D-dimer parameters and the SOFA score. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients, the ROTEM pattern was characterized by a hypercoagulable state with decreased fibrinolytic capacity despite a paradoxical increase in D-dimer levels. We suggest that, in COVID-19 patients, the lungs could be the main source of D-dimer, while a systemic hypofibrinolytic state coexists. This hypothesis should be confirmed by future studies.

Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinolysis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thromboembolism , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/drug therapy