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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1162342, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235328

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) are safe and effective proteins produced in laboratory that may be used to target a single epitope of a highly conserved protein of a virus or a bacterial pathogen. For this purpose, the epitope is selected among those that play the major role as targets for prevention of infection or tissue damage. In this paper, characteristics of the most important mABs that have been licensed and used or are in advanced stages of development for use in prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases are discussed. We showed that a great number of mABs effective against virus or bacterial infections have been developed, although only in a small number of cases these are licensed for use in clinical practice and have reached the market. Although some examples of therapeutic efficacy have been shown, not unlike more traditional antiviral or antibacterial treatments, their efficacy is significantly greater in prophylaxis or early post-exposure treatment. Although in many cases the use of vaccines is more effective and cost-effective than that of mABs, for many infectious diseases no vaccines have yet been developed and licensed. Furthermore, in emergency situations, like in epidemics or pandemics, the availability of mABs can be an attractive adjunct to our armament to reduce the impact. Finally, the availability of mABs against bacteria can be an important alternative, when multidrug-resistant strains are involved.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Epitopes , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy
2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(4)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310679

ABSTRACT

Early physiotherapy could play an important role in the management of severe COVID-19 subjects with consequences of prolonged ICU stay, although its effectiveness is still unclear. Aim of this study is to describe physiotherapy performed in severe COVID-19 patients and to evaluate its safety and feasibility. Consecutive adults with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to the ICU, needing invasive mechanical ventilation for >24 hours and receiving early physiotherapy, have been enrolled. Adverse events occurred during physiotherapy sessions and timing and type of physiotherapy delivered were analysed, to identify the interventions most frequently performed and to determine the time taken to first mobilize, stand and walk. Functional and clinical assessment of patients was also performed at hospital discharge. Eighty-four severe COVID-19 subjects were enrolled. Few minor adverse events were recorded. Active mobilization was promoted over passive mobilization and independence in daily life activities was supported. Time interval from patients' intubation to the first physiotherapy treatment was 13 days and to walking was 27 days. Forty-eight (57.1%) subjects returned at home, whereas 29 (34.5%) were discharged to in-patient rehabilitation. Patients with tracheostomy experienced a delay in time from ICU admission until sit out of bed and ambulation, if compared with subjects without tracheostomy, although no differences were found in 6MWT and 1m-STST performances. This study reporting early physiotherapy during pandemic suggests that this intervention is feasible and safe for severe COVID-19 subjects, as well as healthcare workers, although delayed compared to other critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Physical Therapy Modalities , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Med ; 12(4)2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients non-invasive-positive-pressure-ventilation (NIPPV) has held a challenging role to reduce mortality and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of patients admitted to a Medical Intermediate Care Unit for acute respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia throughout four pandemic waves. METHODS: The clinical data of 300 COVID-19 patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were retrospectively analysed, from March-2020 to April-2022. RESULTS: Non-survivors were older and more comorbid, whereas patients transferred to ICU were younger and had fewer pathologies. Patients were older (from 65 (29-91) years in I wave to 77 (32-94) in IV, p < 0.001) and with more comorbidities (from Charlson's Comorbidity Index = 3 (0-12) in I to 6 (1-12) in IV, p < 0.001). No statistical difference was found for in-hospital mortality (33.0%, 35.8%, 29.6% and 45.9% in I, II, III and IV, p = 0.216), although ICU-transfers rate decreased from 22.0% to 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients have become progressively older and with more comorbidities even in critical care area; from risk class analyses by age and comorbidity burden, in-hospital mortality rates remain high and are thus consistent over four waves while ICU-transfers have significantly reduced. Epidemiological changes need to be considered to improve the appropriateness of care.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234090

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leads to a wide range of clinical manifestations and determines the need for personalized and precision medicine. To better understand the biological determinants of this heterogeneity, we explored the plasma proteome of 43 COVID-19 patients with different outcomes by an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach. The comparison between asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic subjects (MILDs), and hospitalised patients in need of oxygen support therapy (SEVEREs) highlighted 29 proteins emerged as differentially expressed: 12 overexpressed in MILDs and 17 in SEVEREs. Moreover, a supervised analysis based on a decision-tree recognised three proteins (Fetuin-A, Ig lambda-2chain-C-region, Vitronectin) that are able to robustly discriminate between the two classes independently from the infection stage. In silico functional annotation of the 29 deregulated proteins pinpointed several functions possibly related to the severity; no pathway was associated exclusively to MILDs, while several only to SEVEREs, and some associated to both MILDs and SEVEREs; SARS-CoV-2 signalling pathway was significantly enriched by proteins up-expressed in SEVEREs (SAA1/2, CRP, HP, LRG1) and in MILDs (GSN, HRG). In conclusion, our analysis could provide key information for 'proteomically' defining possible upstream mechanisms and mediators triggering or limiting the domino effect of the immune-related response and characterizing severe exacerbations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acuity , Proteomics , Humans , Chromatography, Liquid , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1070379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198911

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with disorders affecting the peripheral and the central nervous system. A high number of patients develop post-COVID-19 syndrome with the persistence of a large spectrum of symptoms, including neurological, beyond 4 weeks after infection. Several potential mechanisms in the acute phase have been hypothesized, including damage of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). We tested weather markers of BBB damage in association with markers of brain injury and systemic inflammation may help in identifying a blood signature for disease severity and neurological complications. Methods: Blood biomarkers of BBB disruption (MMP-9, GFAP), neuronal damage (NFL) and systemic inflammation (PPIA, IL-10, TNFα) were measured in two COVID-19 patient cohorts with high disease severity (ICUCovid; n=79) and with neurological complications (NeuroCovid; n=78), and in two control groups free from COVID-19 history, healthy subjects (n=20) and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; n=51). Samples from COVID-19 patients were collected during the first and the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Lombardy, Italy. Evaluations were done at acute and chronic phases of the COVID-19 infection. Results: Blood biomarkers of BBB disruption and neuronal damage are high in COVID-19 patients with levels similar to or higher than ALS. NeuroCovid patients display lower levels of the cytokine storm inducer PPIA but higher levels of MMP-9 than ICUCovid patients. There was evidence of different temporal dynamics in ICUCovid compared to NeuroCovid patients with PPIA and IL-10 showing the highest levels in ICUCovid patients at acute phase. On the contrary, MMP-9 was higher at acute phase in NeuroCovid patients, with a severity dependency in the long-term. We also found a clear severity dependency of NFL and GFAP levels, with deceased patients showing the highest levels. Discussion: The overall picture points to an increased risk for neurological complications in association with high levels of biomarkers of BBB disruption. Our observations may provide hints for therapeutic approaches mitigating BBB disruption to reduce the neurological damage in the acute phase and potential dysfunction in the long-term.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Blood-Brain Barrier , Interleukin-10 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammation , Biomarkers
6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 132, 2023 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185845

ABSTRACT

As an inherited disorder characterized by severe pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis could be considered a comorbidity for coronavirus disease 2019. Instead, current clinical evidence seems to be heading in the opposite direction. To clarify whether host factors expressed by the Cystic Fibrosis epithelia may influence coronavirus disease 2019 progression, here we describe the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors in primary airway epithelial cells. We show that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression and localization are regulated by Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel. Consistently, our results indicate that dysfunctional CFTR channels alter susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in reduced viral entry and replication in Cystic Fibrosis cells. Depending on the pattern of ACE2 expression, the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein induced high levels of Interleukin 6 in healthy donor-derived primary airway epithelial cells, but a very weak response in primary Cystic Fibrosis cells. Collectively, these data support that Cystic Fibrosis condition may be at least partially protecting from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
J Clin Med ; 11(23)2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143305

ABSTRACT

It is not known if the degrees of improvement in oxygenation obtained by CPAP can predict clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a retrospective study conducted on patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with CPAP in three University hospitals in Milan, Italy, from March 2020 to March 2021. Arterial gas analysis was obtained before and 1 h after starting CPAP. CPAP failure included either death in the respiratory units while on CPAP or the need for intubation. Two hundred and eleven patients (mean age 64 years, 74% males) were included. Baseline median PaO2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F), and the alveolar-arterial (A-a) O2 gradient were 68 (57−83) mmHg, 129 (91−179) mmHg and 310 (177−559) mmHg, respectively. Forty-two (19.9%) patients died in the respiratory units and 51 (24.2%) were intubated. After starting CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 increased by 57 (12−113; p < 0.001) mmHg, and (A-a) O2 was reduced by 68 (−25−250; p < 0.001) mmHg. A substantial overlap of PaO2, P/F, and A-a gradient at baseline and during CPAP was observed in CPAP failures and successes; CPAP-associated improvements in oxygenation in both groups were similar. In conclusion, CPAP-associated improvements in oxygenation do not predict clinical outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination hesitancy is a threat as COVID-19 vaccines have reduced both viral transmission and virus-associated mortality rates, particularly in high-risk subgroups. Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are particularly vulnerable, as the underlying causes of their organ failure and the chronic immunosuppression are associated with a lower immune response to COVID-19 vaccines, and with an excessive risk of death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and its reasons in a population of SOTRs. METHODS: All the SOTRs attending our post-transplant clinics were asked to fill in a vaccination status form with specific validated questions related to their willingness to receive a third vaccine dose. In the case of negative answers, the patients were encouraged to explain the reasons for their refusal. Among the SOTRs (1899), 1019 were investigated (53.7%). RESULTS: Overall, 5.01% (51/1019) of the SOTRs raised concerns regarding the future third dose vaccination. In more detail, hesitancy rates were 3.3% (15/453), 4.2% (7/166), and 7.3% (29/400) among the investigated liver, lung, and kidney transplant recipients, respectively (p = 0.0018). The main reasons for hesitancy were fear of adverse events (30/51, 58.8%) and perceived lack of efficacy (21/51, 41.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Full adherence to ongoing or future vaccination campaigns is crucial to prevent, or at least reduce, COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in fragile patients. The identification of the reasons influencing COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in these patients is very important to establish appropriate and targeted patient-doctor communication strategies, and to further implement specific vaccination campaigns.

10.
Pathogens ; 11(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who undergo hospitalization. Abundant evidence exists concerning the epidemiology of AKI in patients hospitalized in the ICU for COVID-19 but limited data are available about the occurrence of AKI in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients being hospitalized in a non-ICU setting. AIM AND METHODS: We have carried out a retrospective study to evaluate frequency and risk factors for AKI among patients consecutively admitted at a third-level university hospital starting from February 2020 (the beginning of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic); all patients were hospitalized outside the ICU. RESULTS: A total of 387 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were included in the current study; 372 (96.1%) had SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. In-hospital AKI onset was recorded in 119 (30.7%) patients, mainly with AKI stage 1 (n = 74, 62.2%); eighteen (4.6%) patients reported AKI stage 3 and six (1.5%) patients had HD-dependent AKI. There were 235 (60.7%) patients with severe COVID-19, and this was more common in patients developing AKI, 94.5% (86/119) vs. 86.1% (149/268), p = 0.02. Multivariate regression model (n = 144 patients) reported an independent and significant relationship between AKI occurrence and greater levels of ferritin (p = 0.036), IL-6 (p = 0.032), and azotemia at admission (p = 0.0001). A total of 69 (17.8%) SARS-CoV-2-positive patients died and strong predictors of in-hospital death resulted from age (p < 0.0001), serum ferritin (p < 0.0001) and white blood cells (p < 0.001). According to multivariable analysis (n = 163 patients), there was a consistent link between in-hospital death and AKI stage (1) (p = 0.021) and -stage (2) (p = 0.009). Our results support the notion that AKI occurs frequently among hospitalized COVID-19 patients even in a non-ICU setting and plays a pivotal role in the mortality of this population. Further studies are ongoing in order to clearly establish the frequency of AKI in patients with COVID-19; the mechanisms underlying kidney injury in this population are an area of active investigation. These data provide solid evidence to support close monitoring of COVID-19 patients for the development of AKI and measures taken to prevent this.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(8): 2219-2228, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990756

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 spread in two pandemic waves in Italy between 2020 and 2021. The aim of this study is to compare the first with the second COVID-19 wave, analyzing modifiable and non-modifiable factors and how these factors affected mortality in patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine wards. Consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and dyspnea requiring O2 supplementation were included. The severity of lung involvement was categorized according to the patients' oxygen need. Six hundred and ten SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The overall estimated 4-week mortality was similar in the two pandemic waves. Several variables were associated with mortality after univariate analysis, but they lacked the significance after multivariable adjustment. Steroids did not exert any protective effect when analyzed in time-dependent models in the whole sample; however, steroids seemed to exert a protective effect in more severe patients. When analyzing the progression to different states of O2 supplementation during hospital stay, mortality was almost exclusively associated with the use of high-flow O2 or CPAP. The analysis of the transition from one state to the other by Cox-Markov models confirmed that age and the severity of lung involvement at admission, along with fever, were relevant factor for mortality or progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies , Italy/epidemiology
13.
J Clin Med ; 11(16)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987853

ABSTRACT

During the first outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy, based on the only few cases reported from a Chinese centre at the time, we performed lung transplantation in two patients with irreversible acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after COVID-19 at our centre. After two years, we report the outcomes of these cases and some considerations. The first patient, an 18-year-old male, is in excellent conditions twenty-four months after surgery. The second patient was a 48-year-old man; his airways were colonized by carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae at the time of lung transplantation, and he had previously suffered from delirium and hallucinations in the intensive care unit. His postoperative clinical course was complicated by dysexecutive behaviour and then septic shock; he died 62 days after surgery. The recently reported experience of different transplantation centres has led to the inclusion of irreversible acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after COVID-19 among the indications for lung transplantation in carefully selected patients. Our results confirm the feasibility and the good long-term outcomes of lung transplantation for COVID-19-associated ARDS. Nonetheless, our experience corroborates the need for careful recipient selection: special attention must be paid to the single-organ dysfunction principle, the evaluation of any neuro-psychiatric disorder, and MDR germs colonization, before listing.

14.
Am J Hematol ; 97(11): 1404-1412, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976682

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) can be considered as a human pathological model of inflammation combined with hypoxia. In this setting, both erythropoiesis and iron metabolism appear to be profoundly affected by inflammatory and hypoxic stimuli, which act in the opposite direction on hepcidin regulation. The impact of low blood oxygen levels on erythropoiesis and iron metabolism in the context of human hypoxic disease (e.g., pneumonia) has not been fully elucidated. This multicentric observational study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of anemia, the alterations of iron homeostasis, and the relationship between inflammation, hypoxia, and erythropoietic parameters in a cohort of 481 COVID-19 patients admitted both to medical wards and intensive care units (ICU). Data were collected on admission and after 7 days of hospitalization. On admission, nearly half of the patients were anemic, displaying mild-to-moderate anemia. We found that hepcidin levels were increased during the whole period of observation. The patients with a higher burden of disease (i.e., those who needed intensive care treatment or had a more severe degree of hypoxia) showed lower hepcidin levels, despite having a more marked inflammatory pattern. Erythropoietin (EPO) levels were also lower in the ICU group on admission. After 7 days, EPO levels rose in the ICU group while they remained stable in the non-ICU group, reflecting that the initial hypoxic stimulus was stronger in the first group. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that, at least in the early phases, hypoxia-driven stimuli prevail over inflammation in the regulation of hepcidin and, finally, of erythropoiesis.


Subject(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Erythropoietin , Erythropoiesis/physiology , Hepcidins , Humans , Hypoxia , Inflammation , Iron
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0264106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents an urgent threat to global health. Identification of predictors of poor outcomes will assist medical staff in treatment and allocating limited healthcare resources. AIMS: The primary aim was to study the value of D-dimer as a predictive marker for in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a cohort study. The study population consisted of hospitalized patients (age >18 years), who were diagnosed with COVID-19 based on real-time PCR at 9 hospitals during the first COVID-19 wave in Lombardy, Italy (Feb-May 2020). The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Information was obtained from patient records. Statistical analyses were performed using a Fine-Gray competing risk survival model. Model discrimination was assessed using Harrell's C-index and model calibration was assessed using a calibration plot. RESULTS: Out of 1049 patients, 507 patients (46%) had evaluable data. Of these 507 patients, 96 died within 30 days. The cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality within 30 days was 19% (95CI: 16%-23%), and the majority of deaths occurred within the first 10 days. A prediction model containing D-dimer as the only predictor had a C-index of 0.66 (95%CI: 0.61-0.71). Overall calibration of the model was very poor. The addition of D-dimer to a model containing age, sex and co-morbidities as predictors did not lead to any meaningful improvement in either the C-index or the calibration plot. CONCLUSION: The predictive value of D-dimer alone was moderate, and the addition of D-dimer to a simple model containing basic clinical characteristics did not lead to any improvement in model performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 876625, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952820

ABSTRACT

The aging of the population, the burden of chronic diseases, possible new pandemics are among the challenges for healthcare in the XXI century. To face them, technological innovations and the national recovery and resilience plan within the European Union can represent opportunities to implement changes and renovate the current healthcare system in Italy, in an effort to guarantee equal access to health services. Considering such scenario, a panel of Italian experts gathered in a multidisciplinary Think Tank to discuss possible design of concepts at the basis of a new healthcare system. These ideas were summarized in a manifesto with six drivers for change: vision, governance, competence, intelligence, humanity and relationship. Each driver was linked to an action to actively move toward a new healthcare system based on trust between science, citizens and institutions.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , European Union , Health Services , Trust
17.
Eur J Intern Med ; 102: 63-71, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents an urgent threat to global health. Prediction models that accurately estimate mortality risk in hospitalized patients could assist medical staff in treatment and allocating limited resources. AIMS: To externally validate two promising previously published risk scores that predict in-hospital mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Two prospective cohorts were available; a cohort of 1028 patients admitted to one of nine hospitals in Lombardy, Italy (the Lombardy cohort) and a cohort of 432 patients admitted to a hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands (the Leiden cohort). The endpoint was in-hospital mortality. All patients were adult and tested COVID-19 PCR-positive. Model discrimination and calibration were assessed. RESULTS: The C-statistic of the 4C mortality score was good in the Lombardy cohort (0.85, 95CI: 0.82-0.89) and in the Leiden cohort (0.87, 95CI: 0.80-0.94). Model calibration was acceptable in the Lombardy cohort but poor in the Leiden cohort due to the model systematically overpredicting the mortality risk for all patients. The C-statistic of the CURB-65 score was good in the Lombardy cohort (0.80, 95CI: 0.75-0.85) and in the Leiden cohort (0.82, 95CI: 0.76-0.88). The mortality rate in the CURB-65 development cohort was much lower than the mortality rate in the Lombardy cohort. A similar but less pronounced trend was found for patients in the Leiden cohort. CONCLUSION: Although performances did not differ greatly, the 4C mortality score showed the best performance. However, because of quickly changing circumstances, model recalibration may be necessary before using the 4C mortality score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 785941, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869377

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has rapidly spread across the globe starting from February 2020. It is well established that during viral infection, extracellular vesicles become delivery/presenting vectors of viral material. However, studies regarding extracellular vesicle function in COVID-19 pathology are still scanty. Here, we performed a comparative study on exosomes recovered from the plasma of either MILD or SEVERE COVID-19 patients. We show that although both types of vesicles efficiently display SARS-CoV-2 spike-derived peptides and carry immunomodulatory molecules, only those of MILD patients are capable of efficiently regulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. Accordingly, by mass spectrometry, we show that the proteome of exosomes of MILD patients correlates with a proper functioning of the immune system, while that of SEVERE patients is associated with increased and chronic inflammation. Overall, we show that exosomes recovered from the plasma of COVID-19 patients possess SARS-CoV-2-derived protein material, have an active role in enhancing the immune response, and possess a cargo that reflects the pathological state of patients in the acute phase of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Exosomes/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood
19.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients, aldosterone via angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 deregulation may be responsible for systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction, inflammation, and oxidative organ damage. AIM: To verify retrospectively the impact of the mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist canrenone i.v. on the need of invasive ventilatory support and/or all-cause in-hospital mortality. METHODS: Sixty-nine consecutive COVID-19 patients, hospitalized for moderate to severe respiratory failure at Fondazione Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milan, received two different therapeutic approaches in usual care according to the personal skills and pharmacological management experience of the referral medical team. Group A (n = 39) were given vasodilator agents or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors and group B (n = 30) were given canrenone i.v. RESULTS: Among the 69 consecutive COVID-19 patients, those not receiving canrenone i.v. (group A) had an event-free rate of 51% and a survival rate of 64%. Group B (given a mean dose of 200 mg/q.d. of canrenone for at least two days of continuous administration) showed an event-free rate of 80% with a survival rate of 87%. Kaplan-Meier analysis for composite outcomes and mortality showed log rank statistics of 0.0004 and 0.0052, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The novelty of our observation relies on the independent positive impact of canrenone on the all-cause mortality and clinical improvement of COVID-19 patients ranging from moderate to severe diseases.

20.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0220, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe patients according to the maximum degree of respiratory support received and report their inpatient mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Analysis of patients in the Coracle registry from February 22, 2020, to April 1, 2020. SETTING: Hospitals in the Piedmont, Lombardy, Tuscany, and Lazio regions of Italy. PATIENTS: Nine-hundred forty-eight patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 948 patients, 122 (12.87%) received invasive ventilation, 637 (67.19%) received supplemental oxygen only, and 189 (19.94%) received no respiratory support. The median (quartile 1-quartile 3) age was 65 years (54-76.59 yr), and there was evidence of differential respiratory treatment by decade of life (p = 0.0046); patients greater than 80 years old were generally not intubated. There were 606 men (63.9%) in this study, and they were more likely to receive respiratory support than women (p < 0.0001). The rate of in-hospital death for invasive ventilation recipients was 22.95%, 12.87% for supplemental oxygen recipients, and 7.41% for those who received neither (p = 0.0004). A sensitivity analysis of the 770 patients less than 80 years old revealed a lower, but similar mortality trend (18.02%, 8.10%, 5.23%; p = 0.0008) among the 14.42%, 65.71%, and 19.87% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen only, or neither. Overall, invasive ventilation recipients who died were significantly older than those who survived (median age: 68.5 yr [60-81.36 yr] vs 62.5 yr [55.52-71 yr]; p = 0.0145). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019, 13% received mechanical ventilation, which was associated with a mortality rate of 23%.

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