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Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572915


BACKGROUND: Whether breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections after vaccination are related to the level of postvaccine circulating antibody is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinal antibody-based response and risk for breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 4791 patients receiving dialysis. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from a laboratory processing routine monthly tests was used to measure qualitative and semiquantitative antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate whether peak or prebreakthrough RBD values were associated with breakthrough infection, a nested case-control analysis matched each breakthrough case patient to 5 control patients by age, sex, and vaccination month and adjusted for diabetes status and region of residence. RESULTS: Of the 4791 patients followed with monthly RBD assays, 2563 were vaccinated as of 14 September 2021. Among the vaccinated patients, the estimated proportion with an undetectable RBD response increased from 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5% to 7.8%) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 20.2% (CI, 17.0% to 23.3%) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Estimated median index values decreased from 91.9 (CI, 78.6 to 105.2) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 8.4 (CI, 7.6 to 9.3) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Breakthrough infections occurred in 56 patients, with samples collected a median of 21 days before breakthrough infection. Compared with prebreakthrough index RBD values of 23 or higher (equivalent to ≥506 binding antibody units per milliliter), prebreakthrough RBD values less than 10 and values from 10 to less than 23 were associated with higher odds for breakthrough infection (rate ratios, 11.6 [CI, 3.4 to 39.5] and 6.0 [CI, 1.5 to 23.6], respectively). LIMITATIONS: Single measure of vaccine response; ascertainment of COVID-19 diagnosis from electronic health records. CONCLUSION: The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination wanes rapidly in persons receiving dialysis. In this population, the circulating antibody response is associated with risk for breakthrough infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratory.

J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394648


BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis are at increased risk for COVID-19-related complications. However, a substantial fraction of patients on dialysis belong to groups more likely to be hesitant about vaccination. METHODS: With the goal of identifying strategies to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake among patients on hemodialysis, we conducted a nationwide vaccine acceptability survey, partnering with a dialysis network to distribute an anonymized English and Spanish language online survey in 150 randomly selected facilities in the United States. We used logistic regression to evaluate characteristics of vaccine-hesitant persons. RESULTS: A total of 1515 (14% of eligible) patients responded; 20% of all responders, 29% of patients aged 18-44 years, and 29% of Black responders reported being hesitant to seek the COVID-19 vaccine, even if the vaccine was considered safe for the general population. Odds of vaccine hesitancy were higher among patients aged 18-44 years versus those 45-64 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0 to 2.3), Black patients versus non-Hispanic White patients (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.7), Native Americans or Pacific Islanders versus non-Hispanic White patients (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.7), and women versus men (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.0). About half (53%) of patients who were vaccine hesitant expressed concerns about side effects. Responders' main information sources about COVID-19 vaccines were television news and dialysis staff (68% and 38%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients receiving in-center hemodialysis in the United States are hesitant about seeking COVID-19 vaccination. Facilitating uptake requires outreach to younger patients, women, and Black, Native American, or Pacific Islander patients, and addressing concerns about side effects.

JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2116572, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305100


Importance: Seroprevalence studies complement data on detected cases and attributed deaths in assessing the cumulative spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Objective: To estimate seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients receiving dialysis and adults in the US in January 2021 before the widespread introduction of COVID-19 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the third largest US dialysis organization (US Renal Care), which has facilities located nationwide, to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among US patients receiving dialysis. Remainder plasma (ie, plasma that would have otherwise been discarded) of all patients receiving dialysis at US Renal Care facilities from January 1 to 31, 2021, was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients were excluded if they had a documented dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or if a residence zip code was missing from electronic medical records. Crude seroprevalence estimates from this sample (January 2021) were standardized to the US adult population using the 2018 American Community Survey 1-year estimates and stratified by age group, sex, self-reported race/ethnicity, neighborhood race/ethnicity composition, neighborhood income level, and urban or rural status. These data and case detection rates were then compared with data from a July 2020 subsample of patients who received dialysis at the same facilities. Exposures: Age, sex, race/ethnicity, and region of residence as well as neighborhood race/ethnicity composition, poverty, population density, and urban or rural status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The spike protein receptor-binding domain total antibody assay (Siemens Healthineers; manufacturer-reported sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.8%) was used to estimate crude SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the unweighted sample, and then the estimated seroprevalence rates for the US dialysis and adult populations were calculated, adjusting for age, sex, and region. Results: A total of 21 464 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [14.2] years; 12 265 men [57%]) were included in the unweighted sample from January 2021. The patients were disproportionately older (aged 65-79 years, 7847 [37%]; aged ≥80 years, 2668 [12%]) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups (Hispanic patients, 2945 [18%]; non-Hispanic Black patients, 4875 [29%]). Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 18.9% (95% CI, 18.3%-19.5%) in the sample, with a seroprevalence of 18.7% (95% CI, 18.1%-19.2%) standardized to the US dialysis population, and 21.3% (95% CI, 20.3%-22.3%) standardized to the US adult population. In the unweighted sample, younger persons (aged 18-44 years, 25.9%; 95% CI, 24.1%-27.8%), those who self-identified as Hispanic or living in Hispanic neighborhoods (25.1%; 95% CI, 23.6%-26.4%), and those living in the lowest-income neighborhoods (24.8%; 95% CI, 23.2%-26.5%) were among the subgroups with the highest seroprevalence. Little variability was observed in seroprevalence by geographic region, population density, and urban or rural status in the January 2021 sample (largest regional difference, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3] higher odds of seroprevalence in residents of the Northeast vs West). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of patients receiving dialysis in the US, fewer than 1 in 4 patients had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 1 year after the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in the US. Results standardized to the US population indicate similar prevalence of antibodies among US adults. Vaccine introduction to younger individuals, those living in neighborhoods with a large population of racial/ethnic minority residents, and those living in low-income neighborhoods may be critical to disrupting the spread of infection.

Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dialysis/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology