Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 38
Filter
1.
Cell ; 185(13): 2279-2291.e17, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866951

ABSTRACT

The isolation of CCoV-HuPn-2018 from a child respiratory swab indicates that more coronaviruses are spilling over to humans than previously appreciated. We determined the structures of the CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike glycoprotein trimer in two distinct conformational states and showed that its domain 0 recognizes sialosides. We identified that the CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike binds canine, feline, and porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) orthologs, which serve as entry receptors, and determined the structure of the receptor-binding B domain in complex with canine APN. The introduction of an oligosaccharide at position N739 of human APN renders cells susceptible to CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike-mediated entry, suggesting that single-nucleotide polymorphisms might account for viral detection in some individuals. Human polyclonal plasma antibodies elicited by HCoV-229E infection and a porcine coronavirus monoclonal antibody inhibit CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike-mediated entry, underscoring the cross-neutralizing activity among ɑ-coronaviruses. These data pave the way for vaccine and therapeutic development targeting this zoonotic pathogen representing the eighth human-infecting coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , CD13 Antigens/chemistry , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Cats , Cell Line , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Dogs , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(646): eabn1252, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784766

ABSTRACT

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to arise and prolong the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we used a cell-free expression workflow to rapidly screen and optimize constructs containing multiple computationally designed miniprotein inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. We found the broadest efficacy was achieved with a homotrimeric version of the 75-residue angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mimic AHB2 (TRI2-2) designed to geometrically match the trimeric spike architecture. Consistent with the design model, in the cryo-electron microscopy structure TRI2-2 forms a tripod at the apex of the spike protein that engaged all three receptor binding domains simultaneously. TRI2-2 neutralized Omicron (B.1.1.529), Delta (B.1.617.2), and all other variants tested with greater potency than the monoclonal antibodies used clinically for the treatment of COVID-19. TRI2-2 also conferred prophylactic and therapeutic protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge when administered intranasally in mice. Designed miniprotein receptor mimics geometrically arrayed to match pathogen receptor binding sites could be a widely applicable antiviral therapeutic strategy with advantages over antibodies in greater resistance to viral escape and antigenic drift, and advantages over native receptor traps in lower chances of autoimmune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Nature ; 605(7911): 640-652, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773987

ABSTRACT

The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced after infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the National Institutes of Health established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants that could potentially affect the transmission, virulence, and resistance to infection- and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE programme is a critical data-generating component of the US Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics, and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models and notable findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This programme is a template for the response to rapidly evolving pathogens with pandemic potential by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could reduce the effectiveness of countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biological Evolution , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.) , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacogenomic Variants , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology , Virulence
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331333

ABSTRACT

To combat future SARS-CoV-2 variants and spillovers of SARS-like betacoronaviruses (sarbecoviruses) threatening global health, we designed mosaic nanoparticles presenting randomly-arranged sarbecovirus spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to elicit antibodies against conserved/relatively-occluded, rather than variable/immunodominant/exposed, epitopes. We compared immune responses elicited by mosaic-8 (SARS-CoV-2 and seven animal sarbecoviruses) and homotypic (only SARS-CoV-2) RBD-nanoparticles in mice and macaques, observing stronger responses elicited by mosaic-8 to mismatched (not on nanoparticles) strains including SARS-CoV and animal sarbecoviruses. Mosaic-8 immunization showed equivalent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron and protected from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV challenges, whereas homotypic SARS-CoV-2 immunization protected only from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Epitope mapping demonstrated increased targeting of conserved epitopes after mosaic-8 immunization. Together, these results suggest mosaic-8 RBD-nanoparticles could protect against SARS-CoV-2 variants and future sarbecovirus spillovers.

5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(4)2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758789

ABSTRACT

Among the 30 nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the Omicron S-gene are 13 that have only rarely been seen in other SARS-CoV-2 sequences. These mutations cluster within three functionally important regions of the S-gene at sites that will likely impact (1) interactions between subunits of the Spike trimer and the predisposition of subunits to shift from down to up configurations, (2) interactions of Spike with ACE2 receptors, and (3) the priming of Spike for membrane fusion. We show here that, based on both the rarity of these 13 mutations in intrapatient sequencing reads and patterns of selection at the codon sites where the mutations occur in SARS-CoV-2 and related sarbecoviruses, prior to the emergence of Omicron the mutations would have been predicted to decrease the fitness of any virus within which they occurred. We further propose that the mutations in each of the three clusters therefore cooperatively interact to both mitigate their individual fitness costs, and, in combination with other mutations, adaptively alter the function of Spike. Given the evident epidemic growth advantages of Omicron overall previously known SARS-CoV-2 lineages, it is crucial to determine both how such complex and highly adaptive mutation constellations were assembled within the Omicron S-gene, and why, despite unprecedented global genomic surveillance efforts, the early stages of this assembly process went completely undetected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330150

ABSTRACT

Exposure histories to SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccinations will shape the specificity of antibody responses. To understand the specificity of Delta-elicited antibody immunity, we characterize the polyclonal antibody response elicited by primary or mRNA vaccine-breakthrough Delta infections. Both types of infection elicit a neutralizing antibody response focused heavily on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). We use deep mutational scanning to show that mutations to the RBD's class 1 and class 2 epitopes, including sites 417, 478, and 484-486 often reduce binding of these Delta-elicited antibodies. The anti-Delta antibody response is more similar to that elicited by early 2020 viruses than the Beta variant, with mutations to the class 1 and 2, but not class 3 epitopes, having the largest effects on polyclonal antibody binding. In addition, mutations to the class 1 epitope (e.g., K417N) tend to have larger effects on antibody binding and neutralization in the Delta spike than in the D614G spike, both for vaccine- and Delta-infection-elicited antibodies. These results help elucidate how the antigenic impacts of SARS-CoV-2 mutations depend on exposure history.

7.
Science ; 375(6579): 449-454, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723472

ABSTRACT

Understanding broadly neutralizing sarbecovirus antibody responses is key to developing countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2 variants and future zoonotic sarbecoviruses. We describe the isolation and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody, designated S2K146, that broadly neutralizes viruses belonging to SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-related sarbecovirus clades which use ACE2 as an entry receptor. Structural and functional studies show that most of the virus residues that directly bind S2K146 are also involved in binding to ACE2. This allows the antibody to potently inhibit receptor attachment. S2K146 protects against SARS-CoV-2 Beta challenge in hamsters and viral passaging experiments reveal a high barrier for emergence of escape mutants, making it a good candidate for clinical development. The conserved ACE2-binding residues present a site of vulnerability that might be leveraged for developing vaccines eliciting broad sarbecovirus immunity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mesocricetus , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329552

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved variants with substitutions in the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) that impact its affinity for ACE2 receptor and recognition by antibodies. These substitutions could also shape future evolution by modulating the effects of mutations at other sites—a phenomenon called epistasis. To investigate this possibility, we performed deep mutational scans to measure the effects on ACE2 binding of all single amino-acid mutations in the Wuhan-Hu-1, Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Eta variant RBDs. Some substitutions, most prominently N501Y, cause epistatic shifts in the effects of mutations at other sites, thereby shaping subsequent evolutionary change. These epistatic shifts occur despite high conservation of the overall RBD structure. Our data shed light on RBD sequence-function relationships and facilitate interpretation of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 evolution.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327565

ABSTRACT

The long-term evolution of viruses is ultimately due to viral mutants that arise within infected individuals and transmit to other individuals. Here we use deep sequencing to investigate the transmission of viral genetic variation among individuals during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak that infected the vast majority of crew members on a fishing boat. We deep-sequenced nasal swabs to characterize the within-host viral population of infected crew members, using experimental duplicates and strict computational filters to ensure accurate variant calling. We find that within-host viral diversity is low in infected crew members. The mutations that did fix in some crew members during the outbreak are not observed at detectable frequencies in any of the sampled crew members in which they are not fixed, suggesting viral evolution involves occasional fixation of low-frequency mutations during transmission rather than persistent maintenance of within-host viral diversity. Overall, our results show that strong transmission bottlenecks dominate viral evolution even during a superspreading event with a very high attack rate.

10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327060

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicits an antibody response that targets several viral proteins including spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N);S is the major target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we assess levels of anti-N binding antibodies and anti-S neutralizing antibodies in unvaccinated children compared with unvaccinated older adults following infection. Specifically, we examine neutralization and anti-N binding by sera collected up to 52 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and compare these to a cohort of adults, including older adults, most of whom had mild infections that did not require hospitalization. Neutralizing antibody titers were lower in children than adults early after infection, but by 6 months titers were similar between age groups. The neutralizing activity of the children's sera decreased modestly from one to six months;a pattern that was not significantly different from that observed in adults. However, infection of children induced much lower levels of anti-N antibodies than in adults, and levels of these anti-N antibodies decreased more rapidly in children than in adults, including older adults. These results highlight age-related differences in the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins and, as vaccines for children are introduced, may provide comparator data for the longevity of infection-elicited and vaccination-induced neutralizing antibody responses.

11.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010248, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674026

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 variants have mutations at key sites targeted by antibodies. However, it is unknown if antibodies elicited by infection with these variants target the same or different regions of the viral spike as antibodies elicited by earlier viral isolates. Here we compare the specificities of polyclonal antibodies produced by humans infected with early 2020 isolates versus the B.1.351 variant of concern (also known as Beta or 20H/501Y.V2), which contains mutations in multiple key spike epitopes. The serum neutralizing activity of antibodies elicited by infection with both early 2020 viruses and B.1.351 is heavily focused on the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). However, within the RBD, B.1.351-elicited antibodies are more focused on the "class 3" epitope spanning sites 443 to 452, and neutralization by these antibodies is notably less affected by mutations at residue 484. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 variants can elicit polyclonal antibodies with different immunodominance hierarchies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Nature ; 603(7903): 913-918, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671589

ABSTRACT

Two different sarbecoviruses have caused major human outbreaks in the past two decades1,2. Both of these sarbecoviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, engage ACE2 through the spike receptor-binding domain2-6. However, binding to ACE2 orthologues of humans, bats and other species has been observed only sporadically among the broader diversity of bat sarbecoviruses7-11. Here we use high-throughput assays12 to trace the evolutionary history of ACE2 binding across a diverse range of sarbecoviruses and ACE2 orthologues. We find that ACE2 binding is an ancestral trait of sarbecovirus receptor-binding domains that has subsequently been lost in some clades. Furthermore, we reveal that bat sarbecoviruses from outside Asia can bind to ACE2. Moreover, ACE2 binding is highly evolvable-for many sarbecovirus receptor-binding domains, there are single amino-acid mutations that enable binding to new ACE2 orthologues. However, the effects of individual mutations can differ considerably between viruses, as shown by the N501Y mutation, which enhances the human ACE2-binding affinity of several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern12 but substantially decreases it for SARS-CoV-1. Our results point to the deep ancestral origin and evolutionary plasticity of ACE2 binding, broadening the range of sarbecoviruses that should be considered to have spillover potential.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Evolution, Molecular , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S805-S806, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564154

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicits antibodies (Abs) that bind several viral proteins such as the spike entry protein and the abundant nucleocapsid (N) protein. We examined convalescent sera collected through 6 months (~24wks) post-SARS-CoV-2 infection in children to evaluate changes in neutralization potency and N-binding. Methods Outpatient, hospitalized, and community recruited volunteers < 18 years with COVID-19 were enrolled in a longitudinal study at Seattle Children’s Hospital. Analysis includes symptomatic and asymptomatic children with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who provided blood samples at approximately 4wks (range: 2-18wks, IQR:4-8wks) and 24 wks (range: 23-35wks, IQR:25-27wks) after diagnosis. We measured neutralizing Ab using an in-house pseudoneutralization assay and anti-N binding Ab using the Abbott Architect assay. Results Of 32 children enrolled between April 2020 and January 2021, 27 had no underlying immunocompromised state and 25 of these 27 children had symptomatic disease. Ten of 27 had a > 2-fold decrease neutralization titers between 4 and 24wks (most were < 10-fold);12 had < 2-fold change;and 5 had neutralization titers that increased > 2-fold over time (Fig. 1A). All but one of these 27 children had detectable neutralizing activity at 24wks. Anti-N Abs were assessed for 25 children at 4wks and 17 children at 24wks (data pending for 14 samples);all children with paired samples had a > 1.75-fold Abbott index reduction at 24wks, and 5 children had no detectable anti-N Abs by 24wks (Fig. 2A). An additional 5 children with symptomatic disease had complicating immunosuppression or multiple blood transfusions;2 had decreasing neutralizing titers, 2 increased, and 1 had no change (Fig. 1B). Anti-N Abs were undetectable for one child by 24wks (data pending for 4 samples) (Fig. 2B). No participants received COVID-19 vaccine. Figure 1. Pseusoneutralization titers in children over time. Figure 2. Nucleocapsid-binding antibody titers in children over time. Conclusion We show neutralizing Abs wane to a small degree over 24wks post-SARS-CoV-2 infection and remain detectable in most children. In contrast, anti-N Abs decreased, becoming undetectable in some children by 24wks. These findings add to understanding of the natural history of SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children. * This study was supported by CDC BAA75D301-20-R-67897 Disclosures Jesse Bloom, PhD, Flagship Labs 77 (Consultant)Moderna (Consultant) Janet A. Englund, MD, AstraZeneca (Consultant, Grant/Research Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Consultant)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant)Teva Pharmaceuticals (Consultant)

15.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapies for B-cell malignancies are immunocompromised and at risk for serious infections. Vaccine immunogenicity is unknown in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of the humoral immunogenicity of 2019-2020 inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) in children and adults immediately prior to (n=7) or 13-57 months after (n=15) CD19-, CD20-, or BCMA-targeted CAR-T-cell therapy, as well as controls (n=8). Individuals post-CAR-T-cell therapy were in remission. We tested for antibodies to 4 vaccine strains at baseline and ≥1 time point after IIV using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition assays. An antibody response was defined as a ≥4-fold titer increase from baseline at the first post-vaccine time point. Baseline A(H1N1) titers in the CAR-T cohorts were significantly lower compared to controls. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 2 (29%) individuals before CAR-T-cell therapy;one individual maintained a response for >3 months post-CAR-T-cell therapy. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 6 (40%) individuals vaccinated after CAR-T-cell therapy. An additional 2 (29%) and 6 (40%) individuals had ≥2-fold increases (at any time) in the pre- and post-CAR-T cohorts, respectively. There were no identified clinical or immunologic predictors of antibody responses. Neither severe hypogammaglobulinemia nor B-cell aplasia precluded antibody responses. These data support consideration for vaccination before and after CAR-T-cell therapy for influenza and other relevant pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, irrespective of hypogammaglobulinemia or B-cell aplasia. Larger studies are needed to determine correlates of vaccine immunogenicity and durability in CAR-T-cell therapy recipients. Key Points Influenza vaccination was immunogenic pre- and post-CAR-T-cell therapy, despite hypogammaglobulinemia and B-cell aplasia. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines can be considered before CAR-T-cell therapy and in individuals with remission after therapy.

16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495513

ABSTRACT

Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapies for B cell malignancies have profound and prolonged immunodeficiencies and are at risk for serious infections, including respiratory virus infections. Vaccination may be important for infection prevention, but there are limited data on vaccine immunogenicity in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of the humoral immunogenicity of commercially available 2019-2020 inactivated influenza vaccines in adults immediately prior to or while in durable remission after CD19-, CD20-, or B cell maturation antigen-targeted CAR-T-cell therapy, as well as controls. We tested for antibodies to all four vaccine strains using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Antibody responses were defined as at least fourfold titer increases from baseline. Seroprotection was defined as a HAI titer ≥40. Enrolled CAR-T-cell recipients were vaccinated 14-29 days prior to (n=5) or 13-57 months following therapy (n=13), and the majority had hypogammaglobulinemia and cellular immunodeficiencies prevaccination. Eight non-immunocompromised adults served as controls. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 2 (40%) individuals before CAR-T-cell therapy and in 4 (31%) individuals vaccinated after CAR-T-cell therapy. An additional 1 (20%) and 6 (46%) individuals had at least twofold increases, respectively. One individual vaccinated prior to CAR-T-cell therapy maintained a response for >3 months following therapy. Across all tested vaccine strains, seroprotection was less frequent in CAR-T-cell recipients than in controls. There was evidence of immunogenicity even among individuals with low immunoglobulin, CD19+ B cell, and CD4+ T-cell counts. These data support consideration for vaccination before and after CAR-T-cell therapy for influenza and other relevant pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, irrespective of hypogammaglobulinemia or B cell aplasia. However, relatively impaired humoral vaccine immunogenicity indicates the need for additional infection-prevention strategies. Larger studies are needed to refine our understanding of potential correlates of vaccine immunogenicity, and durability of immune responses, in CAR-T-cell therapy recipients.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
Cell ; 184(21): 5432-5447.e16, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454060

ABSTRACT

Understanding vaccine-elicited protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses is key for guiding public health policies. We show that a clinical stage multivalent SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain nanoparticle (RBD-NP) vaccine protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge after a single immunization, indicating a potential dose-sparing strategy. We benchmarked serum neutralizing activity elicited by RBD-NPs in non-human primates against a lead prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (HexaPro) using a panel of circulating mutants. Polyclonal antibodies elicited by both vaccines are similarly resilient to many RBD residue substitutions tested, although mutations at and surrounding position 484 have negative consequences for neutralization. Mosaic and cocktail nanoparticle immunogens displaying multiple sarbecovirus RBDs elicit broad neutralizing activity in mice and protect mice against SARS-CoV challenge even in the absence of SARS-CoV RBD in the vaccine. This study provides proof of principle that multivalent sarbecovirus RBD-NPs induce heterotypic protection and motivates advancing such broadly protective sarbecovirus vaccines to the clinic.

18.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1233-1244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434113

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antigenic sites will inform the development of improved therapeutics. We determined the structures of two human monoclonal antibodies-AZD8895 and AZD1061-which form the basis of the investigational antibody cocktail AZD7442, in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to define the genetic and structural basis of neutralization. AZD8895 forms an 'aromatic cage' at the heavy/light chain interface using germ line-encoded residues in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) 2 and 3 of the heavy chain and CDRs 1 and 3 of the light chain. These structural features explain why highly similar antibodies (public clonotypes) have been isolated from multiple individuals. AZD1061 has an unusually long LCDR1; the HCDR3 makes interactions with the opposite face of the RBD from that of AZD8895. Using deep mutational scanning and neutralization escape selection experiments, we comprehensively mapped the crucial binding residues of both antibodies and identified positions of concern with regards to virus escape from antibody-mediated neutralization. Both AZD8895 and AZD1061 have strong neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern with antigenic substitutions in the RBD. We conclude that germ line-encoded antibody features enable recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and demonstrate the utility of the cocktail AZD7442 in neutralizing emerging variant viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigenic Variation , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
mBio ; 12(5): e0239521, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406605

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein is the main target for neutralizing antibodies. These antibodies can be elicited through immunization or passively transferred as therapeutics in the form of convalescent-phase sera or monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Potently neutralizing antibodies are expected to confer protection; however, it is unclear whether weakly neutralizing antibodies contribute to protection. Also, their mechanism of action in vivo is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that 2B04, an antibody with an ultrapotent neutralizing activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 0.04 µg/ml), protects hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 in a prophylactic and therapeutic infection model. Protection is associated with reduced weight loss and viral loads in nasal turbinates and lungs after challenge. MAb 2B04 also blocked aerosol transmission of the virus to naive contacts. We next examined three additional MAbs (2C02, 2C03, and 2E06), recognizing distinct epitopes within the receptor binding domain of spike protein that possess either minimal (2C02 and 2E06, IC50 > 20 µg/ml) or weak (2C03, IC50 of 5 µg/ml) virus neutralization capacity in vitro. Only 2C03 protected Syrian hamsters from weight loss and reduced lung viral load after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we demonstrated that Fc-Fc receptor interactions were not required for protection when 2B04 and 2C03 were administered prophylactically. These findings inform the mechanism of protection and support the rational development of antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections. IMPORTANCE The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in the loss of millions of lives. Safe and effective vaccines are considered the ultimate remedy for the global social and economic disruption caused by the pandemic. However, a thorough understanding of the immune correlates of protection against this virus is lacking. Here, we characterized four different monoclonal antibodies and evaluated their ability to prevent or treat SARS-CoV-2 infection in Syrian hamsters. These antibodies varied in their ability to neutralize the virus in vitro. Prophylactic administration of potent and weakly neutralizing antibodies protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this effect was Fc receptor independent. The potent neutralizing antibody also had therapeutic efficacy and eliminated onward aerosol transmission. In contrast, minimally neutralizing antibodies provided no protection against infection with SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters. Combined, these studies highlight the significance of weakly neutralizing antibodies in the protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Male , Mesocricetus , Protein Binding
20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(1): 44-57.e9, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385265

ABSTRACT

Antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) are being developed as therapeutics and are a major contributor to neutralizing antibody responses elicited by infection. Here, we describe a deep mutational scanning method to map how all amino-acid mutations in the RBD affect antibody binding and apply this method to 10 human monoclonal antibodies. The escape mutations cluster on several surfaces of the RBD that broadly correspond to structurally defined antibody epitopes. However, even antibodies targeting the same surface often have distinct escape mutations. The complete escape maps predict which mutations are selected during viral growth in the presence of single antibodies. They further enable the design of escape-resistant antibody cocktails-including cocktails of antibodies that compete for binding to the same RBD surface but have different escape mutations. Therefore, complete escape-mutation maps enable rational design of antibody therapeutics and assessment of the antigenic consequences of viral evolution.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Library , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL