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J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(1): 21-42, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736733


The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated neurological, mental health disorders, and neurocognitive issues. However, there is a lack of inexpensive and efficient brain evaluation and screening systems. As a result, a considerable fraction of patients with neurocognitive or psychobehavioral predicaments either do not get timely diagnosed or fail to receive personalized treatment plans. This is especially true in the elderly populations, wherein only 16% of seniors say they receive regular cognitive evaluations. Therefore, there is a great need for development of an optimized clinical brain screening workflow methodology like what is already in existence for prostate and breast exams. Such a methodology should be designed to facilitate objective early detection and cost-effective treatment of such disorders. In this paper we have reviewed the existing clinical protocols, recent technological advances and suggested reliable clinical workflows for brain screening. Such protocols range from questionnaires and smartphone apps to multi-modality brain mapping and advanced imaging where applicable. To that end, the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) proposes the Brain, Spine and Mental Health Screening (NEUROSCREEN) as a multi-faceted approach. Beside other assessment tools, NEUROSCREEN employs smartphone guided cognitive assessments and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as well as potential genetic testing for cognitive decline risk as inexpensive and effective screening tools to facilitate objective diagnosis, monitor disease progression, and guide personalized treatment interventions. Operationalizing NEUROSCREEN is expected to result in reduced healthcare costs and improving quality of life at national and later, global scales.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Male , Quality of Life
Mol Omics ; 17(2): 317-337, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121648


Comprehensive clinical pictures, comorbid conditions, and long-term complications of COVID-19 are still unknown. Recently, using a multi-omics-based strategy, we predicted potential drugs for COVID-19 with ∼70% accuracy. Herein, using a novel multi-omics-based bioinformatic approach and three ways of analysis, we identified the symptoms, comorbid conditions, and short-, mid-, and possible long-term complications of COVID-19 with >90% precision including 27 parent, 170 child, and 403 specific conditions. Among the specific conditions, 36 viral, 53 short-term, 62 short-mid-long-term, 194 mid-long-term, and 57 congenital conditions are identified. At a threshold "count of occurrence" of 4, we found that 83-100% (average 92.67%) of enriched conditions are associated with COVID-19. Except for dry cough and loss of taste, all the other COVID-19-associated mild and severe symptoms are enriched. CVDs, and pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal, neuropsychiatric, kidney, liver, and immune system disorders are top comorbid conditions. Specific diseases like myocardial infarction, hypertension, COPD, lung injury, diabetes, cirrhosis, mood disorders, dementia, macular degeneration, chronic kidney disease, lupus, arthritis, etc. along with several other NCDs were found to be top candidates. Interestingly, many cancers and congenital disorders associated with COVID-19 severity are also identified. Arthritis, gliomas, diabetes, psychiatric disorders, and CVDs having a bidirectional relationship with COVID-19 are also identified as top conditions. Based on our accuracy (>90%), the long-term presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human, and our "genetic remittance" assumption, we hypothesize that all the identified top-ranked conditions could be potential long-term consequences in COVID-19 survivors, warranting long-term observational studies.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Genomics/methods , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Comorbidity , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(14): 2438-2442, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786882


BACKGROUND: The overwhelming fatalities of the global COVID-19 Pandemic will have daunting epigenetic sequala that can translate into an array of mental health issues, including panic, phobia, health anxiety, sleep disturbances to dissociative like symptoms including suicide. Method: We searched PUBMED for articles listed using the search terms "COVID 19 Pandemic", COVID19 and genes," "stress and COVID 19", Stress and Social distancing: Results: Long-term social distancing may be neurologically harmful, the consequence of epigenetic insults to the gene encoding the primary receptor for SARS-CoV2, and COVID 19. The gene is Angiotensin I Converting-Enzyme 2 (ACE2). According to the multi-experiment matrix (MEM), the gene exhibiting the most statistically significant co-expression link to ACE2 is Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC). DDC is a crucial enzyme that participates in the synthesis of both dopamine and serotonin. SARS-CoV2-induced downregulation of ACE2 expression might reduce dopamine and serotonin synthesis, causing hypodopaminergia. Discussion: Indeed, added to the known reduced dopamine function during periods of stress, including social distancing the consequence being both genetic and epigenetic vulnerability to all Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) addictive behaviors. Stress seen in PTSD can generate downstream alterations in immune functions by reducing methylation levels of immune-related genes. Conclusion: Mitigation of these effects by identifying subjects at risk and promoting dopaminergic homeostasis to help regulate stress-relative hypodopaminergia, attenuate fears, and prevent subsequent unwanted drug and non-drug RDS type addictive behaviors seems prudent.

Behavior, Addictive/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Dopamine/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anxiety/genetics , Anxiety/metabolism , Behavior, Addictive/metabolism , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Dopa Decarboxylase/genetics , Dopa Decarboxylase/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distance , Reward , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/genetics , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/genetics , Substance-Related Disorders/metabolism , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Suicide , Syndrome