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1.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Conference: 11th Congress of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, WFPICCS ; 23(11 Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted high (HICs) and low to high- middle income countries (LHMICs) disproportionately. We sought to investigate factors contributing to disparate pediatric COVID-19 mortality. METHOD(S): We used the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 database, and stratified country group defined by World Bank criteria. All hospitalized patients aged less than 19 years with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis from January 2020 through April 2021 were included. RESULT(S): A total of 12,860 patients with 3,819 cases from HICs and 9,041 cases from LHMICs were included in this study. Of these, 8,961 (73.8%) patiens were confirmed cases and 2444 (20.1%) were suspected COVID19. Overall in-hospital mortality was 425 (3.3%) patients, with 4.0% mortality in LHMICs (361/9041), which was higher than 1.7% mortality in HICs (64/3819);adjusted HR (aHR) 4.74, 95%CI 3.16-7.10, p<0.001. There were significant differences between country income groups in the use of interventions, with higher use of antibiotics, corticosteroid, prone position, high flow nasal cannula, and invasive mechanical ventilation in HICs, and higher use of anticoagulants and non-invasive ventilation in LHMICs. Infectious comorbidities such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS were shown to be more prevalent in LHMICs [2 (0.0%) vs 171 (1.9 %), 1 (0.0%) vs. 149 (1.6%) patients, respectively]. Mortality rates in children who received mechanical ventilation in LHMICs were higher compared with children in HICs [89 (43.6%) vs. 17 (7.2%) patients, aHR 12.0, CI95% 7.2-19.9, p<0.001]. CONCLUSION(S): Various contributing factors to COVID-19 mortality identified in this study may reflect management differences in HICs and LHMICs. (Figure Presented).

2.
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Societ ; 17:17, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: South Africa experienced four waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection, dominated by Wuhan-Hu, Beta, Delta and Omicron (BA.1/BA.2). We describe the trends in SARS-CoV-2 testing, cases, admissions, and deaths among children and adolescents in South Africa over successive waves.

3.
BMJ Paediatrics Open ; 6(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153006

ABSTRACT

Background The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric populations varied between high-income countries (HICs) versus low-income to middle-income countries (LMICs). We sought to investigate differences in paediatric clinical outcomes and identify factors contributing to disparity between countries. Methods The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 database was queried to include children under 19 years of age admitted to hospital from January 2020 to April 2021 with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. Univariate and multivariable analysis of contributing factors for mortality were assessed by country group (HICs vs LMICs) as defined by the World Bank criteria. Results A total of 12 860 children (3819 from 21 HICs and 9041 from 15 LMICs) participated in this study. Of these, 8961 were laboratory-confirmed and 3899 suspected COVID-19 cases. About 52% of LMICs children were black, and more than 40% were infants and adolescent. Overall in-hospital mortality rate (95% CI) was 3.3% [=(3.0% to 3.6%), higher in LMICs than HICs (4.0% (3.6% to 4.4%) and 1.7% (1.3% to 2.1%), respectively). There were significant differences between country income groups in intervention profile, with higher use of antibiotics, antivirals, corticosteroids, prone positioning, high flow nasal cannula, non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in HICs. Out of the 439 mechanically ventilated children, mortality occurred in 106 (24.1%) subjects, which was higher in LMICs than HICs (89 (43.6%) vs 17 (7.2%) respectively). Pre-existing infectious comorbidities (tuberculosis and HIV) and some complications (bacterial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and myocarditis) were significantly higher in LMICs compared with HICs. On multivariable analysis, LMIC as country income group was associated with increased risk of mortality (adjusted HR 4.73 (3.16 to 7.10)). Conclusion Mortality and morbidities were higher in LMICs than HICs, and it may be attributable to differences in patient demographics, complications and access to supportive and treatment modalities. Copyright ©

4.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2126687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study compared admission incidence risk across waves, and the risk of mortality in the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 wave, to the Omicron BA.1/BA.2 and Delta waves.

5.
S Afr Med J ; 112(9): 747-752, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported comorbid disease, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac and renal disease, malignancy, HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and obesity, to be associated with COVID­19 mortality. National demographic surveys have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed and untreated comorbid disease in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the number of individuals with previously undiagnosed HIV, TB and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among patients hospitalised with COVID­19, and the level of medical control of these chronic diseases. METHODS: We conducted a sentinel surveillance study to collect enhanced data on HIV, TB and NCDs among individuals with COVID­19 admitted to 16 secondary-level public hospitals in six of the nine provinces of SA. Trained surveillance officers approached all patients who met the surveillance case definition for inclusion in the study, and consenting patients were enrolled. The data collection instrument included questions on past medical history to determine the self-reported presence of comorbidities. The results of clinical and laboratory testing introduced as part of routine clinical care for hospitalised COVID­19 patients were collected for the study, to objectively determine the presence of hypertension, diabetes, HIV and TB and the levels of control of diabetes and HIV. RESULTS: On self-reported history, the most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (n=1 658; 51.5%), diabetes (n=855; 26.6%) and HIV (n=603; 18.7%). The prevalence of self-reported active TB was 3.1%, and that of previous TB 5.5%. There were 1 254 patients admitted with COVID­19 (39.0%) who met the body mass index criteria for obesity. On clinical and laboratory testing, 87 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV, 29 with TB, 215 with diabetes and 40 with hypertension during their COVID­19 admission. There were 151/521 patients living with HIV (29.0%) with a viral load >1 000 copies/mL and 309/570 (54.2%) with a CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Among 901 patients classified as having diabetes, 777 (86.2%) had a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6.5%. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high prevalence of comorbid conditions among individuals with COVID­19 admitted to public hospitals in SA. In addition, a significant number of patients had previously undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, HIV and active TB, and many and poorly controlled chronic disease, as evidenced by high HbA1c levels in patients with diabetes, and high viral loads and low CD4 levels in patients with HIV. The findings highlight the importance of strengthening health systems and care cascades for chronic disease management, which include prevention, screening for and effectively treating comorbidities, and ensuring secure and innovative supplies of medicines in primary healthcare during the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
6.
South African Journal of Science ; 118(5-6):14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918198

ABSTRACT

Older age, male sex, and non-white race have been reported to be risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. Few studies have explored how these intersecting factors contribute to COVID-19 outcomes. This study aimed to compare demographic characteristics and trends in SARS-CoV-2 admissions and the health care they received. Hospital admission data were collected through DATCOV, an active national COVID-19 surveillance programme. Descriptive analysis was used to compare admissions and deaths by age, sex, race, and health sector as a proxy for socio-economic status. COVID-19 mortality and healthcare utilisation were compared by race using random effect multivariable logistic regression models. On multivariable analysis, black African patients (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 1.3), coloured patients (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.3), and patients of Indian descent (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2, 1.3) had increased risk of in-hospital COVID-19 mortality compared to white patients;and admission in the public health sector (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.5, 1.6) was associated with increased risk of mortality compared to those in the private sector. There were higher percentages of COVID-19 hospitalised individuals treated in ICU, ventilated, and treated with supplemental oxygen in the private compared to the public sector. There were increased odds of non-white patients being treated in ICU or ventilated in the private sector, but decreased odds of black African patients being treated in ICU (aOR 0.5;95% CI 0.4, 0.5) or ventilated (aOR 0.5;95% CI 0.4, 0.6) compared to white patients in the public sector. These findings demonstrate the importance of collecting and analysing data on race and socio-economic status to ensure that disease control measures address the most vulnerable populations affected by COVID-19. Significance: These findings demonstrate the importance of collecting data on socio-economic status and race alongside age and sex, to identify the populations most vulnerable to COVID-19. This study allows a better understanding of the pre-existing inequalities that predispose some groups to poor disease outcomes and yet more limited access to health interventions. Interventions adapted for the most vulnerable populations are likely to be more effective. The national government must provide efficient and inclusive non-discriminatory health services, and urgently improve access to ICU, ventilation and oxygen in the public sector. Transformation of the healthcare system is long overdue, including narrowing the gap in resources between the private and public sectors.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 38-42, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629350

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a global pandemic that is threatening the health and wellbeing of people worldwide. To date there have been more than 274 million reported cases and 5.3 million deaths. The Omicron variant first documented in the City of Tshwane, Gauteng Province, South Africa on 9 November 2021 led to exponential increases in cases and a sharp rise in hospital admissions. The clinical profile of patients admitted at a large hospital in Tshwane is compared with previous waves. METHODS: 466 hospital COVID-19 admissions since 14 November 2021 were compared to 3962 admissions since 4 May 2020, prior to the Omicron outbreak. Ninety-eight patient records at peak bed occupancy during the outbreak were reviewed for primary indication for admission, clinical severity, oxygen supplementation level, vaccination and prior COVID-19 infection. Provincial and city-wide daily cases and reported deaths, hospital admissions and excess deaths data were sourced from the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, the National Department of Health and the South African Medical Research Council. RESULTS: For the Omicron and previous waves, deaths and ICU admissions were 4.5% vs 21.3% (p<0.00001), and 1% vs 4.3% (p<0.00001) respectively; length of stay was 4.0 days vs 8.8 days; and mean age was 39 years vs 49,8 years. Admissions in the Omicron wave peaked and declined rapidly with peak bed occupancy at 51% of the highest previous peak during the Delta wave. Sixty two (63%) patients in COVID-19 wards had incidental COVID-19 following a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test . Only one third (36) had COVID-19 pneumonia, of which 72% had mild to moderate disease. The remaining 28% required high care or ICU admission. Fewer than half (45%) of patients in COVID-19 wards required oxygen supplementation compared to 99.5% in the first wave. The death rate in the face of an exponential increase in cases during the Omicron wave at the city and provincial levels shows a decoupling of cases and deaths compared to previous waves, corroborating the clinical findings of decreased severity of disease seen in patients admitted to the Steve Biko Academic Hospital. CONCLUSION: There was decreased severity of COVID-19 disease in the Omicron-driven fourth wave in the City of Tshwane, its first global epicentre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , South Africa/epidemiology
10.
South African Medical Journal ; 111(1):10-13, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-994168

ABSTRACT

Persistence of symptoms or development of new symptoms relating to SARS-CoV-2 infection late in the course of COVID-19 is an increasingly recognised problem facing the globally infected population and its health systems. 'Long-COVID' or 'COVID long-haulers' generally describes those persons with COVID-19 who experience symptoms for >28 days after diagnosis, whether laboratory confirmed or clinical. Symptoms are as markedly heterogeneous as seen in acute COVID-19 and may be constant, fluctuate, or appear and be replaced by symptoms relating to other systems with varying frequency. Such multisystem involvement requires a holistic approach to management of long-COVID, and descriptions of cohorts from low- and middle-income countries are eagerly awaited. Although many persons with long-COVID will be managed in primary care, others will require greater input from rehabilitation medicine experts. For both eventualities, planning is urgently required to ensure that the South African public health service is ready and able to respond.

11.
South African Medical Journal ; 111(1):13-16, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-994166

ABSTRACT

As September marks the start of the malaria season in South Africa (SA), it is essential that healthcare professionals consider both COVID-19 and malaria when a patient who lives in or has recently travelled to a malaria area presents with acute febrile illness. Early diagnosis of malaria by either a rapid diagnostic test or microscopy enables prompt treatment with the effective antimalarial, artemether-lumefantrine, preventing progression to severe disease and death. Intravenous artesunate is the preferred treatment for severe malaria in both children and adults. Adding single low-dose primaquine to standard treatment is recommended in endemic areas to block onward transmission. Use of the highly effective artemisinin-based therapies should be limited to the treatment of confirmed malaria infections, as there is no clinical evidence that these antimalarials can prevent or treat COVID-19. Routine malaria case management services must be sustained, in spite of COVID-19, to treat malaria effectively and support SA's malaria elimination efforts.

13.
South African Medical Journal ; 110(11):1072-1076, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-918511

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained healthcare delivery systems in a number of southern African countries. Despite this, it is imperative that malaria control and elimination activities continue, especially to reduce as far as possible the number and rate of hospitalisations caused by malaria. The implementation of enhanced malaria control/elimination activities in the context of COVID-19 requires measures to protect healthcare workers and the communities they serve. The aim of this review is therefore to present innovative ideas for the timely implementation of malaria control without increasing the risk of COVID-19 to healthcare workers and communities. Specific recommendations for parasite and vector surveillance, diagnosis, case management, mosquito vector control and community outreach and sensitisation are given.

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