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N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 148-159, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931553


BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is an important cause of death as well as long-term disability in survivors. Erythropoietin has been hypothesized to have neuroprotective effects in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but its effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes when given in conjunction with therapeutic hypothermia are unknown. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 501 infants born at 36 weeks or more of gestation with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to receive erythropoietin or placebo, in conjunction with standard therapeutic hypothermia. Erythropoietin (1000 U per kilogram of body weight) or saline placebo was administered intravenously within 26 hours after birth, as well as at 2, 3, 4, and 7 days of age. The primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 36 months of age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as cerebral palsy, a Gross Motor Function Classification System level of at least 1 (on a scale of 0 [normal] to 5 [most impaired]), or a cognitive score of less than 90 (which corresponds to 0.67 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. RESULTS: Of 500 infants in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, 257 received erythropoietin and 243 received placebo. The incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was 52.5% in the erythropoietin group and 49.5% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.24; P = 0.74). The mean number of serious adverse events per child was higher in the erythropoietin group than in the placebo group (0.86 vs. 0.67; relative risk, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS: The administration of erythropoietin to newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy did not result in a lower risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than placebo and was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; number, NCT02811263.).

Erythropoietin , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Neuroprotective Agents , Administration, Intravenous , Cerebral Palsy/etiology , Double-Blind Method , Erythropoietin/administration & dosage , Erythropoietin/adverse effects , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Neuroprotective Agents/adverse effects , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039323, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228876


INTRODUCTION: Blood and imaging biomarkers show promise in prognosticating outcomes after paediatric cardiac arrest in pilot studies. We describe the methods and early recruitment challenges and solutions for an ongoing multicentre (n=14) observational trial, Personalising Outcomes following Child Cardiac Arrest to validate clinical, blood and imaging biomarkers individually and together in a clinically relevant panel. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children (n=164) between 48 hours and 17 years of age who receive chest compressions irrespective of provider, duration, or event location and are admitted to an intensive care unit are eligible. Blood samples will be taken on days 1-3 for the measurement of brain-focused biomarkers analysed to predict the outcome. Clinically indicated and timed brain MRI and spectroscopy biomarkers will be analysed to predict the outcome. The primary outcome for the trial is survival with favourable (Vineland Adaptive Behavioural Scale score >70) outcome at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include mortality and pre-event and postdischarge measures of emotional, cognitive, physical and family functioning and health-related quality of life. Early enrollment targets were not met due to prolonged regulatory and subcontract processes. Multiple, simultaneous interventions including modification to inclusion criteria, additional sites and site visits were implemented with successful improvement in recruitment. Study procedures including outcomes and biomarker analysis are ongoing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Twelve of 14 sites will use the centralised Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh (PRO14030712). Two sites will use individual IRBs: Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Institutional Review Board and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin IRB. Parents and/or guardians are consented and children assented (when possible) by the site Primary investigator (PI) or research coordinator for enrollment. Study findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journal publications, public study website materials and invited lectures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02769026.

COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Aftercare , Child , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin