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1.
Biomacromolecules ; 23(9): 3960-3967, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000842

ABSTRACT

Continued SARS-CoV-2 transmission among the human population has meant the evolution of the virus to produce variants of increased infectiousness and virulence, coined variants of concern (VOCs). The last wave of pandemic infections was driven predominantly by the delta VOC, but because of continued transmission and adaptive mutations, the more highly transmissible omicron variant emerged and is now dominant. However, due to waning immunity and emergence of new variants, vaccines alone cannot control the pandemic. The application of an antiviral coating to high-touch surfaces and physical barriers such as masks are an effective means to inactivate the virus and their spread. Here, we demonstrate an environmentally friendly water-borne polymer coating that can completely inactivate SARS-CoV-2 independent of the infectious variant. The polymer was designed to target the highly glycosylated spike protein on the virion surface and inactivate the virion by disruption of the viral membrane through a nano-mechanical process. Our findings show that, even with low amounts of coating on the surface (1 g/m2), inactivation of alpha, delta, and omicron VOCs and degradation of their viral genome were complete. Furthermore, our data shows that the polymer induces little to no skin sensitization in mice and is non-toxic upon oral ingestion in rats. We anticipate that our transparent polymer coating can be applied to face masks and many other surfaces to capture and inactivate the virus, aiding in the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and evolution of new variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , Polymers , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virion
2.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14915-14927, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368905

ABSTRACT

The rise in coronavirus variants has resulted in surges of the disease across the globe. The mutations in the spike protein on the surface of the virion membrane not only allow for greater transmission but also raise concerns about vaccine effectiveness. Preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, its variants, and other viruses from person to person via airborne or surface transmission requires effective inactivation of the virus. Here, we report a water-borne spray-on coating for the complete inactivation of viral particles and degradation of their RNA. Our nanoworms efficiently bind and, through subsequent large nanoscale conformational changes, rupture the viral membrane and subsequently bind and degrade its RNA. Our coating completely inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (VIC01) and an evolved SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (B.1.1.7 (alpha)), influenza A, and a surrogate capsid pseudovirus expressing the influenza A virus attachment glycoprotein, hemagglutinin. The polygalactose functionality on the nanoworms targets the conserved S2 subunit on the SARS-CoV-2 virion surface spike glycoprotein for stronger binding, and the additional attachment of guanidine groups catalyze the degradation of its RNA genome. Coating surgical masks with our nanoworms resulted in complete inactivation of VIC01 and B.1.1.7, providing a powerful control measure for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Inactivation was further observed for the influenza A and an AAV-HA capsid pseudovirus, providing broad viral inactivation when using the nanoworm system. The technology described here represents an environmentally friendly coating with a proposed nanomechanical mechanism for inactivation of both enveloped and capsid viruses. The functional nanoworms can be easily modified to target viruses in future pandemics, and is compatible with large scale manufacturing processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Water
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