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1.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt C): 112342, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most countries initially deployed COVID-19 vaccines preferentially in elderly populations. We aimed to evaluate whether population-level vaccine effectiveness is heralded by an increase in the relative proportion of deaths among non-elderly populations that were less covered by vaccination programs. ELIGIBLE DATA: We collected data from 40 countries on age-stratified COVID-19 deaths during the vaccination period (1/14/2021-5/31/2021) and two control periods (entire pre-vaccination period and excluding the first wave). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We meta-analyzed the proportion of deaths in different age groups in vaccination versus control periods in (1) countries with low vaccination rates; (2) countries with age-independent vaccination policies; and (3) countries with standard age-dependent vaccination policies. RESULTS: Countries that prioritized vaccination among older people saw an increasing share of deaths among 0-69 year old people in the vaccination versus the two control periods (summary proportion ratio 1.32 [95 CI% 1.24-1.41] and 1.35 [95 CI% 1.26-1.44)]. No such change was seen on average in countries with age-independent vaccination policies (1.05 [95 CI% 0.78-1.41 and 0.97 [95 CI% 0.95-1.00], respectively) and limited vaccination (0.93 [95 CI% 0.85-1.01] and 0.95 [95 CI% 0.87-1.03], respectively). Proportion ratios were associated with the difference of vaccination rates in elderly versus non-elderly people. No significant changes occurred in the share of deaths in age 0-49 among all 0-69 deaths in the vaccination versus pre-vaccination periods. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial shift in the age distribution of COVID-19 deaths in countries that rapidly implemented vaccination predominantly among elderly provides evidence for the population level-effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination and a favorable evolution of the pandemic towards endemicity with fewer elderly deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21136, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493228

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters to help to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020, to November 5, 2020. Afterward, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020, to February 5, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital case-fatality risk. The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of fivefold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 h after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the fivefold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n = 1463) in which the case-fatality rate was 22.6%. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the case-fatality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 h after admission (adjusted R-squared = 0.48). We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization. Although it is reasonable to assume that the model is also applicable in not-hospitalized persons, only appropriate studies can assess the accuracy of the model also for persons at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology
3.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(6): 1270-1277, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy was the first European country to be affected by COVID-19. Considering that many countries are currently battling the second wave of the pandemic, understanding people's perceptions and responses to government policies remain critical for informing on-going mitigation strategies. We assessed attitudes towards COVID-19 policies, levels of adherence to preventive behaviours, and the association between COVID-19 related concerns and adherence levels. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of Italian individuals from an international cross-sectional survey (www.icarestudy.com) from 27 March to 5 May 2020. Multivariate regression models were used to test the association between concerns and the adoption of preventive measures. RESULTS: The survey included 1332 participants [female (68%), younger than 25 (57%)] that reported high awareness (over 96%) and perceived importance (88%) of policies. We observed varied levels of adherence to: hand-washing (96%), avoiding social gatherings (96%), self-isolation if suspected or COVID-19 positive (77%). Significantly lower adherence to self-isolation was reported by individuals with current employment. High levels of concerns regarding health of other individuals and country economy were reported. Only health concerns for others were significantly associated with higher adherence to hand-washing behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: In order to inform current/future government strategies, we provide insights about population's responses to the initial pandemic phase in Italy. Communication approaches should consider addressing people's concerns regarding the health of other individuals to motivate adherence to prevention measures. Provision of social and economic support is warranted to avoid unequal impacts of governmental policies and allow effective adherence to self-isolating measures.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(8)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350019

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study were to calculate the standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for COVID-19 in European Union/European Economic Area countries plus the UK and Switzerland and to evaluate the correlation between SMRs and selected indicators in the first versus the subsequent waves until 23 June 2021. We used indirect standardisation (using Italy as the reference) to compute SMRs and considered 16 indicators of health and social well-being, health system capacity and COVID-19 response. The highest SMRs were in Belgium, the UK and Spain in the first wave (1.20-1.84) and in Hungary, Czechia and Slovakia in the subsequent waves (2.50-2.69). Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy, urbanisation and healthcare expenditure had positive correlations with SMR in the first wave (rho=0.30-0.46), but negative correlations (rho=-0.67 to -0.47) in the subsequent waves. Retail/recreation mobility and transit mobility were negatively correlated with SMR in the first wave, while transit mobility was inversely correlated with SMR in the subsequent waves. The first wave hit most hard countries with high HDI, high life expectancy, high urbanisation, high health expenditures and high tourism. This pattern may reflect higher early community seeding and circulation of the virus. Conversely, in the subsequent waves, this pattern was completely inversed: countries with more resources and better health status did better than eastern European countries. While major SMR differences existed across countries in the first wave, these differences largely dissipated by 23 June 2021, with few exceptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Pers Med ; 11(4)2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241274

ABSTRACT

The development and implementation of the approaches of personalized medicine for disease prevention are still at infancy, although preventive activities in healthcare represent a key pillar to guarantee health system sustainability. There is an increasing interest in finding informative markers that indicate the disease risk before the manifestation of the disease (primary prevention) or for early disease detection (secondary prevention). Recently, the systematic collection and study of clinical phenotypes and biomarkers consented to the advance of Rehabilomics in tertiary prevention. It consents to identify relevant molecular and physiological factors that can be linked to plasticity, treatment response, and natural recovery. Implementation of these approaches would open avenues to identify people at high risk and enable new preventive lifestyle interventions or early treatments targeted to their individual genomic profile, personalizing prevention and rehabilitation. The integration of personalized medicine into prevention may benefit citizens, patients, healthcare professionals, healthcare authorities, and industry, and ultimately will seek to contribute to better health and quality of life for Europe's citizens.

6.
Vaccine ; 39(26): 3493-3497, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237910

ABSTRACT

In order to reduce the burden on healthcare systems and to support differential diagnosis with COVID-19, influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations were strongly recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in vulnerable groups. However, no univocal and conclusive evidence on the relationship between influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations and COVID-19 outcomes exists. We evaluated the association between such vaccinations, COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care unit admissions and deaths in a cohort (N = 741) of COVID-19 patients who had access to the emergency room of a large Italian University hospital between March 1, 2020 and June 1, 2020. Results show that influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations did not affect hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and deaths in COVID-19 patients in the overall sample and in those ≥65 years. The same pattern of results was confirmed considering timing of influenza vaccine administration, vaccination type, and number of uptakes in the last five vaccination campaigns. In conclusion, our study does not support an impact of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
J Pers Med ; 11(2)2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234763

ABSTRACT

The development of high-throughput omics technologies represents an unmissable opportunity for evidence-based prevention of adverse effects on human health. However, the applicability and access to multi-omics tests are limited. In Italy, this is due to the rapid increase of knowledge and the high levels of skill and economic investment initially necessary. The fields of human genetics and public health have highlighted the relevance of an implementation strategy at a national level in Italy, including integration in sanitary regulations and governance instruments. In this review, the emerging field of public health genomics is discussed, including the polygenic scores approach, epigenetic modulation, nutrigenomics, and microbiomes implications. Moreover, the Italian state of implementation is presented. The omics sciences have important implications for the prevention of both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, especially because they can be used to assess the health status during the whole course of life. An effective population health gain is possible if omics tools are implemented for each person after a preliminary assessment of effectiveness in the medium to long term.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154372

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers are at the forefront against COVID-19, worldwide. Since Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli (FPG) IRCCS was enlisted as a COVID-19 hospital, the healthcare workers deployed to COVID-19 wards were separated from those with limited/no exposure, whereas the administrative staff were designated to work from home. Between 4 June and 3 July 2020, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies among the employees of the FPG using point-of-care (POC) and venous blood tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction on nasal/oropharyngeal swabs as the diagnostic gold standard. The participants enrolled amounted to 4777. Seroprevalence was 3.66% using the POC test and 1.19% using the venous blood test, with a significant difference (p < 0.05). The POC test sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 63.64% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.20% to 65.04%) and 96.64% (95% CI: 96.05% to 97.13%), while those of the venous blood test were, respectively, 78.79% (95% CI: 77.58% to 79.94%) and 99.36% (95% CI: 99.07% to 99.55%). Among the low-risk populations, the POC test's predictive values were 58.33% (positive) and 98.23% (negative), whereas those of the venous blood test were 92.86% (positive) and 98.53% (negative). According to our study, these serological tests cannot be a valid alternative to diagnose COVID-19 infection in progress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Rome , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(12): ofaa556, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066385

ABSTRACT

This retrospective cohort study included all the subjects diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (n = 2493) in 2 Italian provinces. Two hundred fifty-eight persons died, after a median of 14.0 ±â€…11.0 days. Adjusting for age, gender, and main comorbidities, the ≥28-day case-fatality rate did not decrease from March to April 2020 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.93; P = .6).

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038686

ABSTRACT

Flu vaccination for the general population, and specifically for vulnerable subgroups, brings the potential to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of mobility, mortality, and hospitalizations. In Italy, flu vaccination is recommended to all ≥6 months of age, even if it is only free of charge for specific categories. We investigated the intentions towards flu and COVID-19 vaccinations from a sample of 436 Italian university students. Results of a web-based survey show that 77.52% of them were willing to get the flu vaccine and 94.73% were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 when available. We identified positive predictive factors to undertake flu vaccination as being a medical student, having undertaken a previous vaccination against flu, and having a high level of concern and perceived vulnerability to the COVID-19 pandemic. Reinforced public health activities might consider engaging university students a as possible "positive influencer" towards flu and COVID-19 vaccination programs.

12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several healthcare systems facing respiratory viral infections outbreaks, like COVID-19, have not been prepared to manage them. Public health mitigation solutions ranging from isolation of infected or suspected cases to implementation of national lockdowns have proven their effectiveness for the outbreak's control. However, the adjustment of public health measures is crucial during transition phases to avoid new outbreaks. To address the need for designing evidence-based strategies, we performed a systematic review to identify healthcare systems interventions, experiences and recommendations that have been used to manage different respiratory viral infections outbreaks in the past. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane were searched to retrieve eligible studies of any study design, published in English until 17 April 2020. Double-blinded screening process was conducted by titles/abstracts and subsequently eligible full texts were read and pertinent data were extracted. When applicable, quality assessment was conducted for the included articles. We performed a narrative synthesis of each implemented public health approaches. RESULTS: We included a total of 24 articles addressing the public health approaches implemented for respiratory viral infections outbreaks for COVID-19, influenza A H1N1, MERS and severe acute respiratory syndrome . The identified approaches are ascribable to two main categories: healthcare system strategies and healthcare provider interventions. The key components of an effective response on respiratory viral outbreaks included the implementation of evidence-based contextual policies, intrahospital management actions, community healthcare facilities, non-pharmaceutical interventions, enhanced surveillance, workplace preventive measures, mental health interventions and communication plans. CONCLUSION: The identified healthcare system strategies applied worldwide to face epidemics or pandemics are a useful knowledge base to inform decision-makers about control measures to be used in the transition phases of COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Load , Humans
13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 620416, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004713

ABSTRACT

Background: Europe overall suffered greatly in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic but the impact of different countries varied. Italy was in the forefront, but there too there were differences, with the Lombardy region the epicentre of the pandemic. Methods: We report Crude Mortality Rates (CMRs) from deaths reported as due to COVID-19 and, in five countries where age-specific data are available, Standardized Mortality Rates (SMRs) in the European Union and United Kingdom. Results: As of 30th August 2020, Belgium was the country with the highest cumulative CMR (86.3/100,000), but the Lombardy region reached almost double this figure (167.6/100,000), far ahead of the corresponding figure for the rest of Italy at 37.0/100,000. SMRs could be calculated for five countries (Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Germany, and Netherlands). Among them, Sweden had the highest SMR (61.6/100,000). The corresponding figures for Italy, Netherlands, Portugal and Germany were 50.2, 41.4, 15.9, and 10.1 per 100,000, respectively. Conclusion: It is clear that countries within Europe have performed very differently in their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, but the many limitations in the available data must be addressed before a definitive assessment of the reasons for these differences can be made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Models, Statistical , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , European Union , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966844

ABSTRACT

The actual effectiveness of the still-to-come vaccination against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 might be challenged by vaccine hesitancy, a rather common and known phenomenon whose psychological predictors are, nevertheless, still largely debated. Our study aims at understanding how adult citizens' health engagement, perceived COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, and general vaccine-related attitudes affect the willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19. To that end, on a sample of Italian citizens, we implemented a path model to test the impact of health engagement on the willingness to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2, and whether this relationship is direct or mediated by the general attitude towards vaccines and the risk perception. Moreover, we tested the configural and weak invariance of the model across gender and three age groups. Results show that health engagement is positively related to the intention to vaccinate and that this relationship is partially mediated by the general attitude towards vaccines. The model appears invariant across genders and partially invariant across age groups, showing some differences in the role of perceived susceptibility. These findings vouch for the implementation of educational campaigns aimed at sustaining future vaccination programs that also include health engagement promotion.

15.
Biomed Hub ; 5(3): 1341-1363, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835560

ABSTRACT

"A ship in the harbour is safe, but that is not what ships are built for," observed that sage 19th century philosopher William Shedd. In other words, technology of high potential is of little value if the potential is not exploited. As the shape of 2020 is increasingly defined by the coronavirus pandemic, digitalisation is like a ship loaded with technology that has a huge capacity for transforming mankind's combat against infectious disease. But it is still moored safely in harbour. Instead of sailing bravely into battle, it remains at the dockside, cowering from the storm beyond the breakwaters. Engineers and fitters constantly fine-tune it, and its officers and deckhands perfect their operating procedures, but that promise is unfulfilled, restrained by the hesitancy and indecision of officialdom. Out there, the seas of the pandemic are turbulent and uncharted, and it is impossible to know in advance everything of the other dangers that may lurk beyond those cloudy horizons. However, the more noble course is for orders to be given to complete the preparations, to cast off and set sail, and to join other vessels crewed by valiant healthcare workers and tireless researchers, already deeply engaged in a rescue mission for the whole of the human race. It is the destiny of digitalisation to navigate those oceans alongside other members of that task force, and the hour of destiny has arrived. This article focuses on the potential enablers and recommendation to maximise learnings during the era of COVID-19.

16.
Vaccines ; 8(4):576, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-813213

ABSTRACT

The actual effectiveness of the still-to-come vaccination against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 might be challenged by vaccine hesitancy, a rather common and known phenomenon whose psychological predictors are, nevertheless, still largely debated. Our study aims at understanding how adult citizens’health engagement, perceived COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, and general vaccine-related attitudes affect the willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19. To that end, on a sample of Italian citizens, we implemented a path model to test the impact of health engagement on the willingness to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2, and whether this relationship is direct or mediated by the general attitude towards vaccines and the risk perception. Moreover, we tested the configural and weak invariance of the model across gender and three age groups. Results show that health engagement is positively related to the intention to vaccinate and that this relationship is partially mediated by the general attitude towards vaccines. The model appears invariant across genders and partially invariant across age groups, showing some differences in the role of perceived susceptibility. These findings vouch for the implementation of educational campaigns aimed at sustaining future vaccination programs that also include health engagement promotion.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(8): 785-788, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716332

ABSTRACT

Researchers have been working quickly and collaboratively for the development of vaccines against the COVID-19 virus. The effort of the scientific community in searching a vaccine for COVID-19 may be hampered by a diffused vaccine hesitancy. Two waves of data collection on representative samples of the Italian population (during the "first" and "second" phase of the Italian Covid-19 mitigation strategy) were conducted to understand citizens' perceptions and behaviors about preventive behaviors willingness to vaccine for COVID-19. Our study shows that willingness to COVID-19 vaccine is correlated to trust in research and in vaccines, which decreased between phase 1 and phase 2 of the Italian pandemic. According to the results of our study, the proportion of citizens that seem to be intentioned to get the Covid-19 vaccine is probably too small to effectively stop the spreading of the disease. This requires to foster a climate of respectful mutual trust between science and society, where scientific knowledge is not only preached but also cultivated and sustained thanks to the emphatic understanding of citizens worries, needs of reassurance and health expectations.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Trust , Vaccination/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(6): 438, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591593

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Since its first report in December 2019, despite great efforts made in almost every country worldwide, this disease continues to spread globally, especially in most parts of Europe, Iran, and the United States. Here, we update the recent understanding in clinical characteristics, diagnosis strategies, as well as clinical management of COVID-19 in China as compared to Italy, with the purpose to integrate the China experience with the global efforts to outline references for prevention, basic research, treatment as well as final control of the disease. Being the first two countries we feel appropriate to evaluate the evolution of the disease as well as the early result of the treatment, in order to offer a different baseline to other countries. It is also interesting to compare two countries, with a very significant difference in population, where the morbidity and mortality has been so different, and unrelated to the size of the country.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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