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1.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the prognosis of older patients who received corticosteroids for COVID-19. We aimed to compare the in-hospital mortality of geriatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19 who received corticosteroids or not. METHODS: We conducted a multicentric retrospective cohort study in 15 acute COVID-19 geriatric wards in the Paris area from March to April 2020 and November 2020 to May 2021. We included all consecutive patients aged 70 years and older who were hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 in these wards. Propensity score and multivariate analyses were used. RESULTS: Of the 1579 patients included (535 received corticosteroids), the median age was 86 (interquartile range 81-91)years, 56% of patients were female, the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 2.6 (interquartile range 1-4), and 64% of patients were frail (Clinical Frailty Score 5-9). The propensity score analysis paired 984 patients (492 with and without corticosteroids). The in-hospital mortality was 32.3% in the matched cohort. On multivariate analysis, the probability of in-hospital mortality was increased with corticosteroids use (odds ratio [OR]=2.61 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63-4.20]). Other factors associated with in-hospital mortality were age (OR=1.04[1.01-1.07], CCI (OR=1.18[1.07-1.29], activities of daily living (OR=0.85[0.75-0.95], oxygen saturation <90% on room air (OR=2.15[1.45-3.17], C-reactive protein level (OR=2.06[1.69-2.51] and lowest lymphocyte count (OR=0.49[0.38-0.63]). Among the 535 patients who received corticosteroids, 68.3% had at least one corticosteroid side effect, including delirium(32.9%), secondary infections(32.7%) and decompensated diabetes(14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicentric matched-cohort study of geriatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of corticosteroids was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality.

2.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 562-570, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625582

ABSTRACT

Aging is associated with functional deficits in the naive T cell compartment, which compromise the generation of de novo immune responses against previously unencountered Ags. The mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon have nonetheless remained unclear. We found that naive CD8+ T cells in elderly humans were prone to apoptosis and proliferated suboptimally in response to stimulation via the TCR. These abnormalities were associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism under homeostatic conditions and enhanced levels of basal activation. Importantly, reversal of the bioenergetic anomalies with lipid-altering drugs, such as rosiglitazone, almost completely restored the Ag responsiveness of naive CD8+ T cells. Interventions that favor lipid catabolism may therefore find utility as adjunctive therapies in the elderly to promote vaccine-induced immunity against targetable cancers and emerging pathogens, such as seasonal influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apoptosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Cell Division , Female , Fenofibrate/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation , MART-1 Antigen/chemistry , MART-1 Antigen/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Rosiglitazone/pharmacology , Single-Blind Method , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 709893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403459

ABSTRACT

Highlights: Innate immune activation during Covid-19 infection is associated with pernicious clinical outcome. Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a worldwide threat that has already caused more than 3 000 000 deaths. It is characterized by different patterns of disease evolution depending on host factors among which old-age and pre-existing comorbidities play a detrimental role. Previous coronavirus epidemics, notably SARS-CoV, were associated with increased serum neopterin levels, which can be interpreted as a sign of acute innate immunity in response to viral infection. Here we hypothesize that neopterin may serve as a biomarker of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and Covid-19 disease severity. Methods: We measured neopterin blood levels by ELISA. Seric concentration was quantified from 256 healthy donors and 374 Covid-19 patients at hospital admission. Enrolled Covid-19 patients were all symptomatic and displayed a large spectrum of comorbidities. Patients were followed until disease resolution or death. Results: Severe and critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were characterized by a profound exacerbation of immune activation characterized by elevated neopterin blood levels. Systemic neopterin levels above 19nM stratified healthy individuals from Covid-19 patients with 87% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Moreover, systemic neopterin levels above 53nM differentiated non-survivors from survivors with 64% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Conclusion: We propose that neopterin concentration measured at arrival to hospital is a hallmark of severe Covid-19 and identifies a high-risk population of pernicious clinical outcome with a need for special medical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neopterin , Critical Illness , Humans
4.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(3): e4-e12, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information describing the characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized older patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHOD: We conducted a multicentric retrospective cohort study in 13 acute COVID-19 geriatric wards, from March 13 to April 15, 2020, in Paris area. All consecutive patients aged 70 years and older, with confirmed COVID-19, were enrolled. RESULTS: Of the 821 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 86 (7) years; 58% were female; 85% had ≥2 comorbidities; 29% lived in an institution; and the median [interquartile range] Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL) score was 4 [2-6]. The most common symptoms at COVID-19 onset were asthenia (63%), fever (55%), dyspnea (45%), dry cough (45%), and delirium (25%). The in-hospital mortality was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI] 27-33). On multivariate analysis, at COVID-19 onset, the probability of in-hospital mortality was increased with male gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.85; 95% CI 1.30-2.63), ADL score <4 (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.25-2.70), asthenia (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.08-2.32), quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score ≥2 (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.64-4.22), and specific COVID-19 anomalies on chest computerized tomography (OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.07-6.46). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information about older patients with COVID-19 who are hospitalized. A quick bedside evaluation at admission of sex, functional status, systolic arterial pressure, consciousness, respiratory rate, and asthenia can identify older patients at risk of unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Geriatric Assessment , Hospitalization , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240711, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874200

ABSTRACT

Prognostic factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients among European population are lacking. Our objective was to identify early prognostic factors upon admission to optimize the management of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a medical ward. This French single-center prospective cohort study evaluated 152 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, hospitalized in the Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology Department, at Pitié-Salpêtrière's Hospital, in Paris, France, a tertiary care university hospital. Predictive factors of intensive care unit (ICU) transfer or death at day 14 (D14), of being discharge alive and severe status at D14 (remaining with ventilation, or death) were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models; models' performances, including discrimination and calibration, were assessed (C-index, calibration curve, R2, Brier score). A validation was performed on an external sample of 132 patients hospitalized in a French hospital close to Paris, in Aulnay-sous-Bois, Île-de-France. The probability of ICU transfer or death was 32% (47/147) (95% CI 25-40). Older age (OR 2.61, 95% CI 0.96-7.10), poorer respiratory presentation (OR 4.04 per 1-point increment on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical scale, 95% CI 1.76-9.25), higher CRP-level (OR 1.63 per 100mg/L increment, 95% CI 0.98-2.71) and lower lymphocytes count (OR 0.36 per 1000/mm3 increment, 95% CI 0.13-0.99) were associated with an increased risk of ICU requirement or death. A 9-point ordinal scale scoring system defined low (score 0-2), moderate (score 3-5), and high (score 6-8) risk patients, with predicted respectively 2%, 25% and 81% risk of ICU transfer or death at D14. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a medical ward in France, a simplified scoring system at admission predicted the outcome at D14.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Patient Transfer/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(4): 691-697, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840632

ABSTRACT

Anecdotal evidence rapidly accumulated during March 2020 from sites around the world that sudden hyposmia and hypogeusia are significant symptoms associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of hyposmia and hypogeusia and compare it in hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients to evaluate an association of these symptoms with disease severity. We performed a cross-sectional survey during 5 consecutive days in March 2020, within a tertiary referral center, associated outpatient clinic, and two primary care outpatient facilities in Paris. All SARS-CoV-2-positive patients hospitalized during the study period and able to be interviewed (n = 198), hospital outpatients seen during the previous month (n = 129), and all COVID-19-highly suspect patients in two primary health centers (n = 63) were included. Hospitalized patients were significantly more often male (64 vs 40%) and older (66 vs 43 years old in median) and had significantly more comorbidities than outpatients. Hyposmia and hypogeusia were reported by 33% of patients and occurred significantly less frequently in hospitalized patients (12% and 13%, respectively) than in the health centers' outpatients (33% and 43%, respectively) and in the hospital outpatients (65% and 60%, respectively). Hyposmia and hypogeusia appeared more frequently after other COVID-19 symptoms. Patients with hyposmia and/or hypogeusia were significantly younger and had significantly less respiratory severity criteria than patients without these symptoms. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction occurs frequently in COVID-19, especially in young, non-severe patients. These symptoms might be a useful tool for initial diagnostic work-up in patients with suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Ageusia/physiopathology , Ambulatory Care , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
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