Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 740-755, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the time to recovery of command-following and associations between hypoxemia with time to recovery of command-following. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective, cohort study during the initial surge of the United States' pandemic (March-July 2020) we estimate the time from intubation to recovery of command-following, using Kaplan Meier cumulative-incidence curves and Cox proportional hazard models. Patients were included if they were admitted to 1 of 3 hospitals because of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), required endotracheal intubation for at least 7 days, and experienced impairment of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale motor score <6). RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-one patients of the 795 patients recovered command-following. The median time to recovery of command-following was 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27-32 days). Median time to recovery of command-following increased by 16 days for patients with at least one episode of an arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) value ≤55 mmHg (p < 0.001), and 25% recovered ≥10 days after cessation of mechanical ventilation. The time to recovery of command-following  was associated with hypoxemia (PaO2 ≤55 mmHg hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.46-0.68; PaO2 ≤70 HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.91), and each additional day of hypoxemia decreased the likelihood of recovery, accounting for confounders including sedation. These findings were confirmed among patients without any imagining evidence of structural brain injury (n = 199), and in a non-overlapping second surge cohort (N = 427, October 2020 to April 2021). INTERPRETATION: Survivors of severe COVID-19 commonly recover consciousness weeks after cessation of mechanical ventilation. Long recovery periods are associated with more severe hypoxemia. This relationship is not explained by sedation or brain injury identified on clinical imaging and should inform decisions about life-sustaining therapies. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:740-755.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Brain Injuries/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypoxia , Retrospective Studies , Unconsciousness/complications
2.
Neurology ; 97(16): 767-775, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394514

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a global effort to rapidly develop and deploy effective and safe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. Vaccination has been one of the most effective medical interventions in human history, although potential safety risks of novel vaccines must be monitored, identified, and quantified. Adverse events must be carefully assessed to define whether they are causally associated with vaccination or coincidence. Neurologic adverse events following immunizations are overall rare but with significant morbidity and mortality when they occur. Here, we review neurologic conditions seen in the context of prior vaccinations and the current data to date on select COVID-19 vaccines including mRNA vaccines and the adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S Johnson & Johnson (Janssen/J&J).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
4.
Neurocrit Care ; 36(1): 89-96, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and etiology of unconsciousness are uncertain in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We tested the hypothesis that increased inflammation in COVID-19 precedes coma, independent of medications, hypotension, and hypoxia. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 3203 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from March 2 through July 30, 2020, in New York City with the Glasgow Coma Scale and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores. We applied hazard ratio (HR) modeling and mediation analysis to determine the risk of SIRS score elevation to precede coma, accounting for confounders. RESULTS: We obtained behavioral assessments in 3203 of 10,797 patients admitted to the hospital who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of those patients, 1054 (32.9%) were comatose, which first developed on median hospital day 2 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-9). During their hospital stay, 1538 (48%) had a SIRS score of 2 or above at least once, and the median maximum SIRS score was 2 (IQR 1-2). A fivefold increased risk of coma (HR 5.05, 95% confidence interval 4.27-5.98) was seen for each day that patients with COVID-19 had elevated SIRS scores, independent of medication effects, hypotension, and hypoxia. The overall mortality in this population was 13.8% (n = 441). Coma was associated with death (odds ratio 7.77, 95% confidence interval 6.29-9.65) and increased length of stay (13 days [IQR 11.9-14.1] vs. 11 [IQR 9.6-12.4]), accounting for demographics. CONCLUSIONS: Disorders of consciousness are common in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 and are associated with increased mortality and length of hospitalization. The underlying etiology of disorders of consciousness in this population is uncertain but, in addition to medication effects, may in part be linked to systemic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consciousness , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e017013, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255734

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 3.0 million people worldwide and killed more than 200,000 as of April 27, 2020. In this White Paper, we address the cardiovascular co-morbidities of COVID-19 infection; the diagnosis and treatment of standard cardiovascular conditions during the pandemic; and the diagnosis and treatment of the cardiovascular consequences of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we will also address various issues related to the safety of healthcare workers and the ethical issues related to patient care in this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Brain ; 144(9): 2696-2708, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185655

ABSTRACT

Many patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection develop neurological signs and symptoms; although, to date, little evidence exists that primary infection of the brain is a significant contributing factor. We present the clinical, neuropathological and molecular findings of 41 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections who died and underwent autopsy in our medical centre. The mean age was 74 years (38-97 years), 27 patients (66%) were male and 34 (83%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Twenty-four patients (59%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Hospital-associated complications were common, including eight patients (20%) with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, seven (17%) with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and 10 (24%) with positive blood cultures during admission. Eight (20%) patients died within 24 h of hospital admission, while 11 (27%) died more than 4 weeks after hospital admission. Neuropathological examination of 20-30 areas from each brain revealed hypoxic/ischaemic changes in all brains, both global and focal; large and small infarcts, many of which appeared haemorrhagic; and microglial activation with microglial nodules accompanied by neuronophagia, most prominently in the brainstem. We observed sparse T lymphocyte accumulation in either perivascular regions or in the brain parenchyma. Many brains contained atherosclerosis of large arteries and arteriolosclerosis, although none showed evidence of vasculitis. Eighteen patients (44%) exhibited pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases, which was not unexpected given the age range of our patients. We examined multiple fresh frozen and fixed tissues from 28 brains for the presence of viral RNA and protein, using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry with primers, probes and antibodies directed against the spike and nucleocapsid regions. The PCR analysis revealed low to very low, but detectable, viral RNA levels in the majority of brains, although they were far lower than those in the nasal epithelia. RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry failed to detect viral RNA or protein in brains. Our findings indicate that the levels of detectable virus in coronavirus disease 2019 brains are very low and do not correlate with the histopathological alterations. These findings suggest that microglial activation, microglial nodules and neuronophagia, observed in the majority of brains, do not result from direct viral infection of brain parenchyma, but more likely from systemic inflammation, perhaps with synergistic contribution from hypoxia/ischaemia. Further studies are needed to define whether these pathologies, if present in patients who survive coronavirus disease 2019, might contribute to chronic neurological problems.


Subject(s)
Brain Infarction/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteremia/complications , Brain/metabolism , Brain Infarction/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Male , Microglia/pathology , Middle Aged , Neurons/pathology , Phagocytosis , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Renal Dialysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Rate , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology
7.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 11(2): e135-e146, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177733

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic complications are increasingly recognized in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This coronavirus is related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and other human coronavirus-related illnesses that are associated with neurologic symptoms. These symptoms raise the question of a neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. RECENT FINDINGS: Potential neurologic symptoms and syndromes of SARS-CoV-2 include headache, fatigue, dizziness, anosmia, ageusia, anorexia, myalgias, meningoencephalitis, hemorrhage, altered consciousness, Guillain-Barré syndrome, syncope, seizure, and stroke. In addition, we discuss neurologic effects of other coronaviruses, special considerations for management of neurologic patients, and possible long-term neurologic and public health sequelae. SUMMARY: As SARS-CoV-2 is projected to infect a large part of the world's population, understanding the potential neurologic implications of COVID-19 will help neurologists and others recognize and intervene in neurologic morbidity during and after the pandemic of 2020.

8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999207

ABSTRACT

Molecular testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the gold standard for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the clinical performance of these tests is still poorly understood, particularly with regard to disease course, patient-specific factors, and viral shedding. From 10 March to 1 May 2020, NewYork-Presbyterian laboratories performed 27,377 SARS-CoV-2 molecular assays from 22,338 patients. Repeat testing was performed for 3,432 patients, of which 2,413 had initial negative and 802 had initial positive results. Repeat-tested patients were more likely to have severe disease and low viral loads. The negative predictive value of the first-day result among repeat-tested patients was 81.3% The clinical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 molecular assays was estimated between 58% and 96%, depending on the unknown number of false-negative results in single-tested patients. Conversion to negative was unlikely to occur before 15 to 20 days after initial testing or 20 to 30 days after the onset of symptoms, with 50% conversion occurring at 28 days after initial testing. Conversion from first-day negative to positive results increased linearly with each day of testing, reaching 25% probability in 20 days. Sixty patients fluctuated between positive and negative results over several weeks, suggesting that caution is needed when single-test results are acted upon. In summary, our study provides estimates of the clinical performance of SARS-CoV-2 molecular assays and suggests time frames for appropriate repeat testing, namely, 15 to 20 days after a positive test and the same day or next 2 days after a negative test for patients with high suspicion for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load , Young Adult
9.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3156-3168, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748838

ABSTRACT

Understanding the relationship between infection and stroke has taken on new urgency in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This association is not a new concept, as several infections have long been recognized to contribute to stroke risk. The association of infection and stroke is also bidirectional. Although infection can lead to stroke, stroke also induces immune suppression which increases risk of infection. Apart from their short-term effects, emerging evidence suggests that poststroke immune changes may also adversely affect long-term cognitive outcomes in patients with stroke, increasing the risk of poststroke neurodegeneration and dementia. Infections at the time of stroke may also increase immune dysregulation after the stroke, further exacerbating the risk of cognitive decline. This review will cover the role of acute infections, including respiratory infections such as COVID-19, as a trigger for stroke; the role of infectious burden, or the cumulative number of infections throughout life, as a contributor to long-term risk of atherosclerotic disease and stroke; immune dysregulation after stroke and its effect on the risk of stroke-associated infection; and the impact of infection at the time of a stroke on the immune reaction to brain injury and subsequent long-term cognitive and functional outcomes. Finally, we will present a model to conceptualize the many relationships among chronic and acute infections and their short- and long-term neurological consequences. This model will suggest several directions for future research.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atherosclerosis/immunology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Infections/immunology , Infections/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/immunology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/epidemiology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/physiopathology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL