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1.
Behaviour research and therapy ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2278093

ABSTRACT

Objective This randomized-waitlist controlled trial is the first study examining short-term effects of a self-guided online grief-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing early persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression symptoms in adults bereaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method Sixty-five Dutch adults, bereaved at least three months earlier during the pandemic, with clinically-relevant PCBD, PTSD, and/or depression symptoms, were allocated to a treatment (n = 32) or waitlist condition (n = 33). Telephone interviews were conducted to assess PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptoms (using validated instruments) at baseline, post-treatment, and post-waiting period. Participants received an eight-week self-guided online grief-specific CBT including exposure, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral activation assignments. Analyses of covariance were performed. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that people in the intervention condition showed significantly lower PCBD (d = 0.90), PTSD (d = 0.71), and depression (d = 0.57) symptom-levels post-treatment relative to waitlist controls post-waiting, while taking baseline symptom-levels and use of professional psychological co-intervention into account. Conclusions The online CBT proved to be an effective intervention, reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Pending replication of these findings, early online interventions may be widely implemented in practice to improve treatments for distressed bereaved people.

2.
Behav Res Ther ; 163: 104286, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This randomized-waitlist controlled trial is the first study examining short-term effects of a self-guided online grief-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing early persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression symptoms in adults bereaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Sixty-five Dutch adults, bereaved at least three months earlier during the pandemic, with clinically-relevant PCBD, PTSD, and/or depression symptoms, were allocated to a treatment (n = 32) or waitlist condition (n = 33). Telephone interviews were conducted to assess PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptoms (using validated instruments) at baseline, post-treatment, and post-waiting period. Participants received an eight-week self-guided online grief-specific CBT including exposure, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral activation assignments. Analyses of covariance were performed. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that people in the intervention condition showed significantly lower PCBD (d = 0.90), PTSD (d = 0.71), and depression (d = 0.57) symptom-levels post-treatment relative to waitlist controls post-waiting, while taking baseline symptom-levels and use of professional psychological co-intervention into account. CONCLUSIONS: The online CBT proved to be an effective intervention, reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Pending replication of these findings, early online interventions may be widely implemented in practice to improve treatments for distressed bereaved people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Adult , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Pandemics , Depression/psychology , Grief
3.
J Affect Disord Rep ; 12: 100516, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268456

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: A rise in prolonged grief disorder (PGD) levels was expected due to COVID-19 deaths. We tested this assumption, by comparing PGD-severity among people who experienced a death of a loved one during the pandemic caused by a natural (e.g., illness), COVID-19, or unnatural (e.g., accidents, suicides, homicides) loss on average 8 months earlier and in a subgroup of people bereaved ≥12 months earlier. Design and methods: Self-rated DSM-5-TR (acute) PGD levels (using the Traumatic Grief Inventory-Self Report plus) were compared among Dutch adults who experienced a natural (N = 1036), COVID-19 (N = 76), or unnatural loss (N = 271) during the pandemic. Analyses of covariance were used. Results: About two-thirds of the participants scored above the cut-off for (acute) probable PGD. Significantly higher acute PGD-severity was found in people after unnatural loss compared with COVID-19 (B = -2.44 (SE=0.87), p = .005) or natural loss (B = -1.78 (SE=0.45), p<.001). No significant differences in acute PGD-severity was found between people who experienced a natural or COVID-19 loss (B = 0.66 (SE=0.80), p = .413). PGD levels did not differ between the three groups for people who lost their loved one ≥12 months earlier (N = 380). Conclusions: We found that acute PGD-severity was significantly higher following unnatural deaths than after COVID-19 deaths or natural causes, but no differences were found for people who experienced a loss ≥12 months earlier.

4.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 12(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564715

ABSTRACT

Background Losing a loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic is a potentially traumatic loss that may result in symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. To date, grief-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has mostly been delivered through individual face-to-face formats, while studies have shown that online treatment also yields promising results. Offering treatment online is now more than ever relevant during the pan demic and may offer important benefits compared with face-to-face CBT, such as lower costs and higher accessibility. Our expectation is that grief-specific online CBT is effective in reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Objective Our aim is to evaluate the short-term and long-term effectiveness of grief-specific online CBT in reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptom-levels for adults who lost a loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method This study consists of two parts. In part 1, a two-armed (unguided online CBT versus waitlist controls) randomized controlled trial will be conducted. In part 2, a two-armed (guided online CBT versus unguided online CBT) controlled trial will be conducted. Symptoms of PCBD, PTSD, and depression will be assessed via telephone interviews at pre-treatment/pre-waiting period, post-treatment/post-waiting period, and six months post-treatment. Potential participants are people who lost a loved one at least three months earlier during the COVID-19 pandemic with clinically relevant levels of PCBD, PTSD, and/or depression. Analysis of covariance and multilevel modelling will be performed. Discussion This is one of the first studies examining the effectiveness of online grief-specific CBT. More research is needed before implementing online grief-specific CBT into clinical practice. HIGHLIGHTS This is the first study examining the effectiveness of online treatment in reducing psychopathology levels in people who lost loved ones during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1987687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541466

ABSTRACT

Background: Losing a loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic is a potentially traumatic loss that may result in symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. To date, grief-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has mostly been delivered through individual face-to-face formats, while studies have shown that online treatment also yields promising results. Offering treatment online is now more than ever relevant during the pan demic and may offer important benefits compared with face-to-face CBT, such as lower costs and higher accessibility. Our expectation is that grief-specific online CBT is effective in reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the short-term and long-term effectiveness of grief-specific online CBT in reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptom-levels for adults who lost a loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This study consists of two parts. In part 1, a two-armed (unguided online CBT versus waitlist controls) randomized controlled trial will be conducted. In part 2, a two-armed (guided online CBT versus unguided online CBT) controlled trial will be conducted. Symptoms of PCBD, PTSD, and depression will be assessed via telephone interviews at pre-treatment/pre-waiting period, post-treatment/post-waiting period, and six months post-treatment. Potential participants are people who lost a loved one at least three months earlier during the COVID-19 pandemic with clinically relevant levels of PCBD, PTSD, and/or depression. Analysis of covariance and multilevel modelling will be performed. Discussion: This is one of the first studies examining the effectiveness of online grief-specific CBT. More research is needed before implementing online grief-specific CBT into clinical practice.


Antecedentes: Perder a un ser querido durante la pandemia de COVID-19 es una pérdida potencialmente traumática que puede resultar en síntomas de trastorno de duelo complejo persistente (PCBD en su sigla en inglés), trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT) y depresión. Hasta la fecha, la terapia cognitivo-conductual (TCC) específica para el duelo se ha proporcionado principalmente a través de formatos individuales cara a cara, mientras que los estudios han demostrado que el tratamiento en línea también produce resultados prometedores. Ofrecer tratamiento en línea es ahora más relevante que nunca durante la pandemia y puede ofrecer importantes beneficios en comparación con la TCC presencial, como menores costos y mayor accesibilidad. Nuestra expectativa es que la TCC en línea específica para el duelo sea eficaz para reducir el PCBD, el TEPT y los síntomas de depresión.Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la efectividad a corto y largo plazo de la TCC en línea específica para el duelo en la reducción de los niveles de PCBD, TEPT y síntomas de depresión en adultos que perdieron a un ser querido durante la pandemia de COVID-19.Método: Este estudio consta de dos partes. En la parte 1, se llevará a cabo un ensayo controlado aleatorio de dos brazos (TCC en línea no guiado versus controles con la lista de espera). En la parte 2, se llevará a cabo un ensayo controlado de dos brazos (TCC en línea guiada versus TCC en línea no guiada). Los síntomas de PCBD, TEPT y depresión se evaluarán mediante entrevistas telefónicas en el período de pretratamiento/pre-espera, post-tratamiento/post-período de espera y seis meses post-tratamiento. Los participantes potenciales son personas que perdieron a un ser querido al menos tres meses antes durante la pandemia de COVID-19 con niveles clínicamente relevantes de PCBD, TEPT y/o depresión. Se realizarán análisis de covarianza y modelado multinivel.Discusión: Este es uno de los primeros estudios que examinan la efectividad de la TCC en línea específica para el duelo. Se necesita más investigación antes de implementar la TCC en línea específica para el duelo en la práctica clínica.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/therapy , Prolonged Grief Disorder , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Netherlands , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Telemedicine
6.
Public Health ; 191: 85-90, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125690

ABSTRACT

The field of bereavement research and care is at a tipping point. The introduction of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) has ignited clinical interest in this new disorder, along with debate over challenges in validating and implementing these new criteria. At the same time, the global COVID-19 pandemic has launched several local and international efforts to provide urgent support and comfort for individuals and communities suffering from grief. Recently, grief experts have called for a collective response to these complicated bereavements and possible increase in PGD due to COVID-19. Here we outline a new European network that aims to unite a community of grief researchers and clinicians to provide accessible, evidence-based support particularly during times of unprecedent crisis. The Bereavement Network Europe (BNE) has been developed with two main aims. Firstly, to develop expert agreed, internationally acceptable guidelines for bereavement care through a three-tiered approach. Secondly, to provide a platform for researchers and clinicians to share knowledge, collaborate, and develop consensus protocols to facilitate the introduction of PGD to diverse stakeholders. This article outlines the current status and aims of the BNE along with the plans for upcoming network initiatives and the three-tiered bereavement care guidelines in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Networks , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Grief , International Classification of Diseases , Bereavement , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Organizational , Practice Guidelines as Topic
7.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(1):13-15, 2021.
Article in Dutch | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1061732

ABSTRACT

Background In the Netherlands over 9,400 people have died from the consequences of the COVID-19 virus. Aim To describe possible consequences of the COVID-19 pandemia and the measures to control the spread of the virus, for the experiences of loss and mourning and to describe what is needed to prevent grief problems. Method Discussion of selected literature and consideration. Results The COVID-19 measures have an impact on the experiences of loss and mourning of bereaved people. The possibilities to appeal to social relationships have been limited due to the isolation measurements. Therefore, bereaved people might have a heightened risk to develop grief problems. Even though social support is of crucial interest in the processing of a loss, grief can also interfere with the possibilities to use social relationships. Research demonstrated a negative relationship between grief and social problem-solving skills. Thereby bereaved people face an additional challenge, to develop new goals, roles and attachment relationships under the current COVID-19 measurements of social isolation. Conclusion In times of COVID-19 society should pay more attention to experiences of loss and grief in order to activate social support for people bereaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie 63(2021)1, 13-15.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113438, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735372

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects many societies by measures as "social distancing", forcing mental health care professionals to deliver treatments online or via telephone. In this context, online Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an emerging treatment for patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We performed a systematic review of studies investigating online EMDR for PTSD. Only one trial was identified. That uncontrolled open trial showed promising results. There is an urgent need to further examine the effects of online EMDR for PTSD, before its wider dissemination is warranted. Remotely delivered cognitive behavioural therapy seems the preferred PTSD-treatment in times of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology
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