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J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488628


Choices regarding coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak may imply the development as well as the severity of emotional disorders. The aim of this web-based cross-sectional study was to: (1) assess the coping strategies for stress in a population of Polish students and (2) evaluate the impact of those strategies on the severity of depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. To evaluate emotional distress, we used the DASS-21 scale and coping strategies Brief-COPE Inventory. The study included 2172 respondents (73% female, 27% male) with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.2. Students more frequently chose stress coping strategies belonging to the 'approach' coping strategies (M = 29.60 ± 6.89) compared to 'avoidant' coping strategies (M = 22.82 ± 5.78). The intensification of distress in women caused a turn to religion (p = 0.001), while men used substances (p < 0.001) and a sense of humor (p < 0.001). Medical students coped best with emotional distress, which is very encouraging for their future profession. The highest level of DASS total score was associated with the usage of avoidant coping strategies, prior use of psychiatric or psychological support, and loneliness. Planning interventions to prevent emotional disorders in students requires the identification of factors contributing to increased emotional distress.

J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304677


The innovative Eye Movement Modelling Examples (EMMEs) method can be used in medicine as an educational training tool for the assessment and verification of students and professionals. Our work was intended to analyse the possibility of using eye tracking tools to verify the skills and training of people engaged in laboratory medicine on the example of parasitological diagnostics. Professionally active laboratory diagnosticians working in a multi-profile laboratory (non-parasitological) (n = 16), laboratory diagnosticians no longer working in this profession (n = 10), and medical analyst students (n = 56), participated in the study. The studied group analysed microscopic images of parasitological preparations made with the cellSens Dimension Software (Olympus) system. Eye activity parameters were obtained using a stationary, video-based eye tracker Tobii TX300 which has a 3-ms temporal resolution. Eye movement activity parameters were analysed along with time parameters. The results of our studies have shown that the eye tracking method is a valuable tool for the analysis of parasitological preparations. Detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis confirmed that the EMMEs method may facilitate learning of the correct microscopic image scanning path. The analysis of the results of our studies allows us to conclude that the EMMEs method may be a valuable tool in the preparation of teaching materials in virtual microscopy. These teaching materials generated with the use of eye tracking, prepared by experienced professionals in the field of laboratory medicine, can be used during various training, simulations and courses in medical parasitology and contribute to the verification of education results, professional skills, and elimination of errors in parasitological diagnostics.

Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286193


Currently, a very important thread of research on COVID-19 is to determine the dimension of the psychopathological emotional reactions induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. A non-experimental online research project was designed to determine the predictors of the severity of psychopathological symptoms, such as depression and PTSD symptoms, and the nature of the feedback mechanism between them in groups of men, remaining in hospital isolation due to infection and at-home isolation during the COVID-19 epidemic. The presence of symptoms of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a sense of threat due to the pandemic were assessed using the following screening tests: IES-R by Weiss and Marmar, PHQ-9 by Spitzer et al., and a self-constructed sliding scale for assessing COVID-19 anxiety. The study was carried out on a group of 57 firefighting cadets, hospitalized in a COVID-19 isolation room (Mage = 23.01), staying in isolation due to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and a control group of 57 healthy men (Mage = 41.38) staying at home during quarantine and national lockdown. COVID-19 pandemic causes many psychopathological reactions. The predictive models revealed that the predictors of symptoms of PTSD in isolated patients included depression and the experienced sense of COVID-19 threat resulting from the disease, while in the control group the symptoms of depression were the only predictor of PTSD. PTSD experiences are usually associated with depression. It may also be a form of the re-experiencing process or the effect of high affectivity, indirectly confirmed by the participation of hyperarousal in the feedback loop. Our findings highlight the importance of mental health aspects in patients treated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic requires social distancing, quarantine and isolation, which may cause psychopathological symptoms not only in affected people, but also in the general population. Moreover, the need for greater psychological support can be emphasized for both: the sick and the general population.

J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125587


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a significant impact on both physical and mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to (1) evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress levels among students from Polish universities during the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) assess the risk factors of the higher intensity of emotional distress. We conducted an online survey using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) to assess well-being. The study included 2172 respondents (73% female, 27% male) with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.2. Moderate to extremely severe scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported by 43.4%, 27.3%, and 41.0% of the respondents, respectively. Higher scores of DASS-21 were related to female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01), studying sciences (OR = 2.04), co-residence with the roommates (OR = 1.25), suffering from a mental disorder (OR = 5.88), loneliness (OR = 293.30), the usage of psychiatric support before pandemic (OR = 8.06), poor economic situation (OR = 13.49), and the lower scores were found for being currently employed (OR = 0.4). This study highlights an urgent need for (1) crisis-oriented psychological and psychiatric support for students during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) preparing appropriate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of students for a possible similar situation in the future.