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3.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 50(6): 515-522, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562318

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of synchronous upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) tumors within oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and to specify distinct risk groups who benefit from panendoscopy. Definite clinical and pathohistological characteristics, as well as overall and recurrence-free survival (OAS and RFS, respectively) of OSCC patients with and without synchronous second UAT tumors, carcinomas in situ, or higher-grade dysplasia/metaplasia, were evaluated based on a retrospective population-based cohort study, including alignment with cancer registry data. Out of 727 included OSCC patients, 465 cases (64.0%) received panendoscopy. Among these, 18 UAT tumors were detected, all of which were linked to patients with a positive history of nicotine abuse. Every synchronous UAT tumor was revealed by panendoscopy, which, analyzed as an independent staging procedure, was accompanied by a low complication rate (1.7%). When illuminating the impact of a second UAT tumor in OSCC patients, survival analysis revealed reduced 5-year OAS (63.9% vs 43.5%, p = 0.010) and RFS (57.1% vs 32.4%, p = 0.016) for patients with a second oncology diagnosis of the UAT. Within the limitations of the study, it seems that panendoscopy should be performed in the majority of patients suffering from OSCC, because most of them have a history of smoking and drinking, which correlates with an increased risk of developing synchronous UAT tumors.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Mouth Neoplasms , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cohort Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology , Neoplasms, Second Primary/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Second Primary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology
4.
J Clin Med ; 11(8)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456271

ABSTRACT

Appropriate management of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is of particular importance in females, as HHT-mediated modifications of the vascular bed and circulation are known to increase the risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery. This study was undertaken to evaluate female HHT patients' awareness of and experience with HHT during pregnancy and delivery, with a focus on epistaxis. In this retrospective study, 46 females (median age: 60 years) with confirmed HHT completed a 17-item questionnaire assessing knowledge of HHT and its pregnancy-associated complications, the severity of epistaxis during past pregnancies and deliveries, and the desire for better education and counselling regarding HHT and pregnancy. Results revealed that 85% of participants were unaware of their disease status prior to the completion of all pregnancies. Further, 91% reported no knowledge of increased pregnancy-related risk due to HHT. In regard to epistaxis, 61% of respondents reported experiencing nosebleeds during pregnancy. Finally, approximately a third of respondents suggested that receiving counseling on the risks of HHT in pregnancy could have been helpful. Findings suggest that awareness of HHT and its potential for increasing pregnancy-related risk is poor. Best practices in HHT management should be followed to minimize negative effects of the disorder.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320821

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prominent symptoms of acute COVID-19. Although both senses recover in many patients within weeks to months, persistency has been described in up to 60%. However up to now most reports on the course of chemosensitive disorders after COVID-19 are not based on psychophysical testing but only on subjective patients' ratings. In this study we assessed both olfaction and gustation using psychophysical tests eight months after COVID-19. Validated psychophysical testing revealed hyposmia in 18% and hypogeusia in even 32% of 303 included patients. This shows that olfactory and especially gustatory disorders have to be seen as important chronic symptoms post-COVID-19. The high prevalence of gustatory dysfunction indicates that gustatory function does not recover or might even deteriorate in the months following the acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Threshold
6.
Front Oncol ; 12: 795277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296001

ABSTRACT

Background: Pembrolizumab and cetuximab are antibodies under investigation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) either as single agents or combined with cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs, e.g., 5-fluorouracil and/or docetaxel. However, also the combination of both antibodies may have potential in recurrent/metastatic (R/M) HNSCC, in particular in cisplatin-resistant or -refractory cases or patients with comorbid disease, e.g. patients with impaired renal function. Methods: To clarify potential benefit that may result from such combination, we used the FLAVINO assay, a short-time ex vivo assay to compare responsiveness of HNSCC to pembrolizumab, cetuximab and both combined regarding colony formation of epithelial cells of biopsy-derived tumor samples and their cytokine production within three days either without or with stimulation with 10 ng/mL interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 or CCL2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IFN-γ, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10) in supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: We detected huge heterogeneity in response to cetuximab, pembrolizumab and both combined with and without IFN-γ stimulation. Moreover, we detected a link between IFN-γ induced IP-10 release and improved outcome in those HNSCC patients who were capable to respond to IFN-γ and pembrolizumab, cetuximab and both combined with a further increase in IP-10 production. We derived an "IP-10 score" that independent from clinical characteristics of HNSCC patients and therapy regimens applied was able to predict their outcome. Conclusions: The heterogeneity in the ex vivo response of cetuximab, pembrolizumab and both combined with and without IFN-γ stimulation identifies subgroups of HNSCC patients with deviating OS.

7.
Laryngoscope ; 132(5): 1082-1087, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gustatory function during COVID-19 is self-reported by around 50% of patients. However, only a few studies assessed gustation using psychophysical testing during acute infection. The objective of this study is to test gustatory function on threshold tests in the very first days of COVID-19. METHODS: Psychophysical testing consisted of validated and blinded tests for olfaction (NHANES Pocket Smell Test) and gustation (Taste Strips Test). These test kits were sent to home-quarantined patients and self-administered using a detailed instruction sheet. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in this study. Testing was performed 6.5 ± 2.7 days after sampling of respiratory swabs. At this time 37% of patients stated to currently experience a gustatory impairment. The mean Taste Strips score was 10.0 ± 3.4 with 28% scoring in the range of hypogeusia. Interestingly, no significant difference in the results of gustatory testing could be observed between the group with subjectively preserved gustation and the group with self-rated taste impairment. CONCLUSION: During the very first days of COVID-19, psychophysical gustatory testing revealed hypogeusia in 28%. This is far lower than patients' self-reports. Different from previous studies, we did not find clear evidence for an impairment of only certain taste qualities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 132:1082-1087, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
8.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211070899, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037507

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Smoking is not only one of the main risk factors for the development of most malignant and numerous benign ENT tumours but also has an important influence on therapy and prognosis. Even quitting smoking at the time of diagnosis significantly reduces mortality. Patients have a particularly strong desire to stop smoking when they are diagnosed. The present study investigated to what extent patients were aware of the relationships between smoking and the development and prognosis of tumours and how much information and smoking cessation support they were offered by physicians. METHODS: A total of 194 patients (74.7% male, 62.0 ±10.6 a) with malignant primary ENT tumours, pre-cancerous tumours, Reinke's oedema and salivary gland tumours were interviewed. RESULTS: 22.7% were nonsmokers, 49.5% were cigarette smokers and 27.8% were ex-smokers. A total of 57.0% of the smokers said they would have quit before the onset of the disease if they had known about the association. Forty-one percent did not receive information about the association between smoking and the development of their disease, while 45.5% did not receive information about the relationship with their prognosis. The provision of information lasted less than 5 min for 40.4% of the patients and more than 10 min for only 13.5%. In total, 50.7% of the patients were directly requested not to smoke. A total of 7.7% received offers of smoking cessation support from otolaryngologists and 18.2% received such offers from family physicians. CONCLUSIONS: There is a pronounced need for improvements in the provision of medical information about the health risks associated with smoking and offers to support patient efforts to stop smoking. In particular, the appointment during which the diagnosis is communicated to the patient should be considered a 'teachable moment' that can lead to smoking cessation.

10.
J Clin Invest ; 131(22)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779418

ABSTRACT

Metabolic pathways regulate immune responses and disrupted metabolism leads to immune dysfunction and disease. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is driven by imbalanced immune responses, yet the role of immunometabolism in COVID-19 pathogenesis remains unclear. By investigating 87 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 6 critically ill non-COVID-19 patients, and 47 uninfected controls, we found an immunometabolic dysregulation in patients with progressed COVID-19. Specifically, T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes exhibited increased mitochondrial mass, yet only T cells accumulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), were metabolically quiescent, and showed a disrupted mitochondrial architecture. During recovery, T cell ROS decreased to match the uninfected controls. Transcriptionally, T cells from severe/critical COVID-19 patients showed an induction of ROS-responsive genes as well as genes related to mitochondrial function and the basigin network. Basigin (CD147) ligands cyclophilin A and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein triggered ROS production in T cells in vitro. In line with this, only PCR-positive patients showed increased ROS levels. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in a downregulation of ROS in vitro and T cells from dexamethasone-treated patients exhibited low ROS and basigin levels. This was reflected by changes in the transcriptional landscape. Our findings provide evidence of an immunometabolic dysregulation in COVID-19 that can be mitigated by dexamethasone treatment.


Subject(s)
Basigin/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Cyclophilin A/physiology , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682843

ABSTRACT

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT; Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) affects the capillary and larger vessels, leading to arteriovenous shunts. Epistaxis is the main symptom impairing quality of life. The aim of the Osler Calendar is to offer information about the extent of the systemic disease and the current state of treatment. A care plan with information on the rare disease and self-treatment of epistaxis was created. Organ examinations and ongoing treatments were recorded. A questionnaire documents the treatment success, including patient satisfaction, frequency of hemorrhage and hemoglobin levels. The patients using the Osler Calendar for at least one year (n = 54) were surveyed. Eighty-five percent of patients (n = 46) used the calendar to gain information about HHT. Seventy-two percent (n = 39) used the Osler Calendar for instructions on the self-treatment of nosebleeds. The calendar increased patients' understanding for the need for organ screenings from 48% (n = 26) to 81% (n = 44). Seventy-nine percent (n = 43) of patients confirmed that the Osler Calendar documented their therapeutic process either well or very well. Fifty-two percent (n = 28) saw an improvement in the therapeutic process due to the documentation. The Osler Calendar records the individual intensity of the disease and facilitates the communication between attending physicians. It is a tool for specialists to review treatment strategies. Furthermore, the calendar enhances patients' comprehension of their condition.

12.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(4): 1891-1898, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extended endoscopic endonasal operations of the sinuses and the frontal skull base require a bimanual action of the surgeon in many cases. Thus, typically an assistant guides the endoscope and centers the field of view. In this study, we investigate in which cases an endoscope holding arm can be used alternatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The electromagnetic system ENDOFIXexo was used in different surgical interventions of the paranasal sinuses and beyond questioning ergonomics and geometrical limitations. The realized degrees of freedom were documented, and a topography of possible applications compiled. RESULTS: The presented system is limited by the anatomy of the anterior ethmoid and dynamic working conditions in the sagittal direction. Especially in extended interventions in the posterior ethmoid, in which parts of the nasal septum have been resected and a static position of the endoscope is desired the surgeon can greatly benefit from the robotic arm. Moreover, through the high flexibility of the endoscopic arm surgeries of the pharynx and larynx were performed, questioning the current gold standard of microscope-assisted surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Under the impression of an urging staff shortage and due to its unlimited patience, the ENDOFIXexo arm seems promising. Taking into account the complex anatomy and the limited access, we especially see a favorable field of application in the surgery of the pituitary gland and skull base tumors.


Subject(s)
Paranasal Sinuses , Surgeons , Endoscopes , Endoscopy/methods , Humans , Paranasal Sinuses/surgery , Skull Base/surgery
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6): 1889-1903, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000199

ABSTRACT

Purpose High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) is an emerging, but barely used, endoscopy technique in the clinic to assess and diagnose voice disorders because of the lack of dedicated software to analyze the data. HSV allows to quantify the vocal fold oscillations by segmenting the glottal area. This challenging task has been tackled by various studies; however, the proposed approaches are mostly limited and not suitable for daily clinical routine. Method We developed a user-friendly software in C# that allows the editing, motion correction, segmentation, and quantitative analysis of HSV data. We further provide pretrained deep neural networks for fully automatic glottis segmentation. Results We freely provide our software Glottis Analysis Tools (GAT). Using GAT, we provide a general threshold-based region growing platform that enables the user to analyze data from various sources, such as in vivo recordings, ex vivo recordings, and high-speed footage of artificial vocal folds. Additionally, especially for in vivo recordings, we provide three robust neural networks at various speed and quality settings to allow a fully automatic glottis segmentation needed for application by untrained personnel. GAT further evaluates video and audio data in parallel and is able to extract various features from the video data, among others the glottal area waveform, that is, the changing glottal area over time. In total, GAT provides 79 unique quantitative analysis parameters for video- and audio-based signals. Many of these parameters have already been shown to reflect voice disorders, highlighting the clinical importance and usefulness of the GAT software. Conclusion GAT is a unique tool to process HSV and audio data to determine quantitative, clinically relevant parameters for research, diagnosis, and treatment of laryngeal disorders. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14575533.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Larynx , Glottis , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Phonation , Software , Vibration , Video Recording , Vocal Cords
14.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(6): 434-442, 2021 06.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851374

ABSTRACT

Increasing normative demands on patient safety and quality assurance measures, but also the problem of multi-resistant germs and pathogens with a high potential for infection, increase the need for hygienically correct work.In this study, hygienically relevant potential sources of contamination in ENT examinations were to be identified and possible improvement strategies examined.A complete ENT examination was performed by 5 examiners with different professional experience, whose gloves were wetted with fluorescent lotion prior to the examination. Contaminations especially on the examination unit and on the instruments were identified. The potential risk of transmission of pathogens to subsequent patients was assessed using a specially developed score. Various strategies to reduce identified contamination possibilities were developed and thought through.The score of the investigators was very high with an average of 87.4 points (±3.6). The implementation of individual hygiene measures during the examination process would lead to a significant reduction of the score and thus to an improvement in hygiene: No shaking of hands (81.8), additional disinfection of patient's chair (79.8), disinfection of important surfaces (69.8), provision of standard instruments (60.2) or all instruments (32.2), disinfection of all relevant surfaces and provision of all instruments (7.4).The results show very clearly that an ENT examination is a complex procedure from the point of view of hygiene. For reliable protection against possible transmission events, a structured bundling of hygiene measures is therefore necessary.


Subject(s)
Disinfection , Hygiene , Fluorescence , Humans
16.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(12): 966-972, 2021 12.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618377

ABSTRACT

Actinomycosis is an infectious disease caused by gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria, which in most cases manifests itself in the cervicofacial area and often has a dentogenic focus. The clinical presentation ranges from acute abscess to chronically fistulating soft tissue processes. Early diagnosis and an appropriate therapeutic approach including a combination of extensive antibiotic treatment and, if necessary, surgical intervention are critical. This article presents five cases of actinomycete infections, which are intended to illustrate the variety of clinical presentations, the problems on the way to the correct diagnosis and possible therapeutic courses.


Subject(s)
Actinomycosis, Cervicofacial , Actinomycosis , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Actinomycosis/drug therapy , Actinomycosis/surgery , Actinomycosis, Cervicofacial/diagnosis , Actinomycosis, Cervicofacial/drug therapy , Actinomycosis, Cervicofacial/surgery , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans
17.
Ear Hear ; 42(5): 1208-1217, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577215

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In contrast to the moderate presentation levels most commonly used in clinical practice, speech encountered in everyday life often occurs at low levels, such as when a conversational partner whispers or speaks from another room. In addition, even when the overall signal level is moderate, levels for particular words or speech sounds, such as voiceless consonants, can be considerably lower. Existing techniques for improving recognition of low-level speech for cochlear implant users include using a wider input dynamic range and elevating electrode threshold levels (T-levels). While these techniques tend to positively impact recognition of soft speech, each has also been associated with drawbacks. Recently, a noise-gating (NG) algorithm was reported, which works by eliminating input to an electrode when signal level in the associated frequency channel is at or below a predetermined threshold. Available evidence suggests that activation of this algorithm can improve recognition of sentences presented at low levels (35 to 50 dB SPL), though it remains unclear whether the benefits will be equally evident with both manufacturer default and individually optimized T-levels. The primary aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the independent and combined effects of NG activation and T-level personalization. METHODS: Twenty adults between the ages of 25 and 77 years (M = 54.9 years, SD = 17.56) with postlingually acquired profound hearing loss completed testing for this study. Participants were fit with an Advanced Bionics Naida CI Q90 speech processor, which contained four programs based on each participant's existing everyday program. The programs varied by the NG algorithm setting (on, off) and T-level method (default 10% of M-level, personalized based on subjective ratings of "very quiet"). All participants completed speech sound detection threshold testing (/m/, /u/, /a/, /i/, /s/, and /∫/), as well as tests of monosyllabic word recognition in quiet (45 and 60 dB SPL), sentence recognition in quiet (45 and 60 dB SPL), and sentence recognition in noise (45-dB SPL speech, +10 dB SNR). RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that both activating NG and personalizing T-levels in isolation significantly improved detection (speech sounds) and recognition (monosyllables, sentences in quiet, and sentences in noise) of soft speech, with their respective individual effects being comparable. However, the lowest speech sound detection thresholds and the highest speech recognition performance were identified when NG was activated in conjunction with personalized T-levels. Importantly, neither T-level personalization nor NG activation affected recognition of speech presented at 60 dB SPL, which suggests the strategies should not be expected to interfere with recognition of average conversational speech. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data support the clinical recommendation of personalizing T-levels and activating NG to improve the detection and recognition of soft speech. However, future work is needed to evaluate potential limitations of these techniques. Specifically, speech recognition testing should be performed in the presence of diverse noise backgrounds and home-trials should be conducted to determine processing effects on sound quality in realistic environments.


Subject(s)
Cochlear Implants , Speech Perception , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Auditory Threshold , Humans , Middle Aged , Speech
18.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 197(3): 167-176, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216194

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Treatment of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with radiotherapy or chemoradiation is an established alternative to laryngeal surgery in many cases, but particularly for advanced tumors without cartilage invasion. Imaging modalities face the challenge of distinguishing between posttherapeutic changes and residual disease in the complex anatomic subsite of the larynx. Guidelines concerning restaging of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are presented by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and other national guidelines, but clearly defined recommendations for routine restaging particularly for laryngeal cancer are lacking. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed to identify studies evaluating routine restaging methods after primary non-surgical treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma from 2009 to 2020. RESULTS: Only three studies were deemed eligible, as they included at least ≥50% patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and evaluated imaging modalities to detect residual cancer. The small number of studies in our review suggest restaging with fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) 3 months after initial treatment, followed by direct laryngoscopy with biopsy of the lesions identified by FDG PET/CT. CONCLUSION: Studies evaluating restaging methods after organ-preserving non-surgical treatment of laryngeal carcinoma are limited. As radiotherapy (RT), chemoradiotherapy (CRT), systemic therapy followed by RT and radioimmunotherapy are established alternatives to surgical treatment, particularly in advanced laryngeal cancers, further studies are needed to assess and compare different imaging modalities (e.g. PET/CT, MRI, CT, ultrasound) and clinical diagnostic tools (e.g., video laryngoscopy, direct laryngoscopy) to offer patients safe and efficient restaging strategies. PET or PET/CT 3 months after initial treatment followed by direct laryngoscopy with biopsy of the identified lesions has the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary laryngoscopies.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Larynx/pathology , Biopsy/methods , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/analysis , Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Laryngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Laryngoscopy/methods , Larynx/drug effects , Larynx/radiation effects , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods
19.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 99(10): 682-693, 2020 10.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987413

ABSTRACT

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT; Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome; Morbus Osler) represents a syndrome affecting capillary vessels, leading to arteriovenous shunting. With an average worldwide prevalence of 1:5.000-8.000 HHT is considered an orphan disease. Arteriovenous shunts involve predominantly the nasal mucosa, the intestine, lung, liver and central nervous system. Epistaxis is the primary and most bothersome complaint of patients with HHT. A multistage therapeutic concept includes nasal ointment, laser therapy under local anesthesia and surgery under general anesthesia, as well as drug therapies. In addition, screening to determine affection of internal organs is carried out. Lesions that require therapy should be treated in an interdisciplinary setting. Treatment of lesions of the skin, oral and gastrointestinal mucosa and liver is carried out in regard to patients' symptoms, whereas vascular malformations of the lung and brain might need treatment without being symptomatic, due to possible life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic , Epistaxis/diagnosis , Epistaxis/etiology , Epistaxis/therapy , Humans , Nasal Mucosa , Prevalence , Rare Diseases , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/diagnosis , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/therapy
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