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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(13)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932900

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-elicited SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are an established correlate of protection against viral infection in humans and nonhuman primates. However, it is less clear that vaccine-induced immunity is able to limit infection-elicited inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. To assess this, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples after SARS-CoV-2 strain USA-WA1/2020 challenge from rhesus macaques vaccinated with mRNA-1273 in a dose-reduction study. Single-cell transcriptomic profiling revealed a broad cellular landscape 48 hours after challenge, with distinct inflammatory signatures that correlated with viral RNA burden in the lower respiratory tract. These inflammatory signatures included phagocyte-restricted expression of chemokines, such as CXCL10 and CCL3, and the broad expression of IFN-induced genes, such as MX1, ISG15, and IFIT1. Induction of these inflammatory profiles was suppressed by prior mRNA-1273 vaccination in a dose-dependent manner and negatively correlated with prechallenge serum and lung antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike. These observations were replicated and validated in a second independent macaque challenge study using the B.1.351/Beta variant of SARS-CoV-2. These data support a model wherein vaccine-elicited antibody responses restrict viral replication following SARS-CoV-2 exposure, including limiting viral dissemination to the lower respiratory tract and infection-mediated inflammation and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820450

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a staggering impact on social, economic, and public health systems worldwide. Vaccine development and mobilization against SARS-CoV-2 (the etiologic agent of COVID-19) has been rapid. However, novel strategies are still necessary to slow the pandemic, and this includes new approaches to vaccine development and/or delivery that will improve vaccination compliance and demonstrate efficacy against emerging variants. Here, we report on the immunogenicity and efficacy of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprising stabilized, pre-fusion spike protein trimers displayed on a ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) adjuvanted with either conventional aluminum hydroxide or the Army Liposomal Formulation QS-21 (ALFQ) in a cynomolgus macaque COVID-19 model. Vaccination resulted in robust cell-mediated and humoral responses and a significant reduction in lung lesions following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The strength of the immune response suggests that dose sparing through reduced or single dosing in primates may be possible with this vaccine. Overall, the data support further evaluation of SpFN as a SARS-CoV-2 protein-based vaccine candidate with attention to fractional dosing and schedule optimization.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331501

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a staggering impact on social, economic, and public health systems worldwide. Vaccine development and mobilization against SARS-CoV-2 (the etiologic agent of COVID-19) has been rapid. However, novel strategies are still necessary to slow the pandemic, and this includes new approaches to vaccine development and/or delivery, which improve vaccination compliance and demonstrate efficacy against emerging variants. Here we report on the immunogenicity and efficacy of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprised of stabilized, pre-fusion Spike protein trimers displayed on a ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) adjuvanted with either conventional aluminum hydroxide or the Army Liposomal Formulation QS-21 (ALFQ) in a cynomolgus macaque COVID-19 model. Vaccination resulted in robust cell-mediated and humoral responses and a significant reduction of lung lesions following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The strength of the immune response suggests that dose sparing through reduced or single dosing in primates may be possible with this vaccine. Overall, the data support further evaluation of SpFN as a SARS-CoV-2 protein-based vaccine candidate with attention to fractional dosing and schedule optimization.

4.
J Virol ; 96(2): e0159921, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494959

ABSTRACT

Live oral vaccines have been explored for their protective efficacy against respiratory viruses, particularly for adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7. The potential of a live oral vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), however, remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of live SARS-CoV-2 delivered to the gastrointestinal tract in rhesus macaques and its protective efficacy against intranasal and intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Postpyloric administration of SARS-CoV-2 by esophagogastroduodenoscopy resulted in limited virus replication in the gastrointestinal tract and minimal to no induction of mucosal antibody titers in rectal swabs, nasal swabs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Low levels of serum neutralizing antibodies were induced and correlated with modestly diminished viral loads in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following intranasal and intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Overall, our data show that postpyloric inoculation of live SARS-CoV-2 is weakly immunogenic and confers partial protection against respiratory SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 remains a global threat, despite the rapid deployment but limited coverage of multiple vaccines. Alternative vaccine strategies that have favorable manufacturing timelines, greater ease of distribution, and improved coverage may offer significant public health benefits, especially in resource-limited settings. Live oral vaccines have the potential to address some of these limitations; however, no studies have yet been conducted to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a live oral vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report that oral administration of live SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates may offer prophylactic benefits, but the formulation and route of administration will require further optimization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Animals , Female , Macaca mulatta , Male
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