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1.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742338

ABSTRACT

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) plays a key role in maintaining immune tolerance and also in immune evasion of cancers and pathogens. Though the identity of stimuli that induce PD-L1 in various human innate cells and their function are relatively well studied, data on the basophils remain scarce. In this study, we have identified one of the factors, such as IFN-γ, that induces PD-L1 expression in human basophils. Interestingly, we found that basophil priming by IL-3 is indispensable for IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression in human basophils. However, priming by other cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was dispensable. Analyses of a published microarray data set on IL-3-treated basophils indicated that IL-3 enhances IFNGR2, one of the chains of the IFNGR heterodimer complex, and CD274, thus providing a mechanistic insight into the role of IL-3 priming in IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression in human basophils.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , Basophils , Humans , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Interleukin-3/pharmacology , Leukocyte Count
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742220

ABSTRACT

Basophils play a key role in the orientation of immune responses. Though the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with various immune cells has been relatively well studied, the response of basophils to this pandemic virus is not characterized yet. In this study, we report that SARS-CoV-2 induces cytokine responses and in particular IL-13, in both resting and IL-3 primed basophils. The response was prominent under IL-3 primed condition. However, either SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-2-infected epithelial cells did not alter the expression of surface markers associated with the activation of basophils, such as CD69, CD13 and/or degranulation marker CD107a. We also validate that human basophils are not permissive to SARS-CoV-2 replication. Though increased expression of immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 has been reported on the basophils from COVID-19 patients, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 does not induce PD-L1 on the basophils. Our data suggest that basophil cytokine responses to SARS-CoV-2 might help in reducing the inflammation and also to promote antibody responses to the virus.


Subject(s)
Basophils/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-13/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Interleukin-3/metabolism , Virus Replication
3.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 1511-1525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662468

ABSTRACT

Background: Asthma is a chronic lung disease, which causes wheezing, tightness in the chest, shortness of breath and coughing. In the wake of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which affect the lungs, asthma patients are at high risk. Embelin, a natural benzoquinone obtained mainly from Embelia ribes Burm, has excellent biological properties, including protection against acute asthma. However, since asthma is a chronic and multi-factorial inflammatory disease, asthma conferred by a single allergen in an animal may not be clinically significant. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of embelin against ovalbumin (OVA)-lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced severe airway inflammation in experimental animals and to investigate the plausible mechanism of action. Methods: Rats (n=36) were divided into six groups. Group I served as a normal control. Groups II-VI were sensitised with severe allergens (OVA and LPS) on day 7, 14 and 21, followed by OVA and LPS challenge for 30 min three times/week for 3 weeks. Group II acted as an asthmatic disease control and received only vehicle. On the other hand, groups III-V received embelin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, P.O. respectively) while group VI received a standard dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg, P.O.) for 15 days from day 27. Lung function parameters, including the respiratory rate, tidal volume and airflow rate were measured at the end of the experiment (day 42). The total and differential counts of leukocytes in the blood and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) were calculated. Th2-mediated serum pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels were analyzed. At the end of the study protocol, the lung tissues were removed for a histopathology study. Additionally, a molecular docking simulation on embelin and standard dexamethasone was applied to support the in vivo findings. Results: Significant inhibition of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes in the blood and the BALF was seen in the groups, which received embelin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg). Moreover, the lung function parameters were normalised by embelin (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly. The lung histopathological changes confirmed the protective effect of embelin against severe airway inflammation. The docking findings indicated good binding efficacy of embelin to IL-13. Conclusion: Overall, our findings indicate that embelin can alleviate severe airway inflammation in OVA-LPS-induced model of allergic asthma occurring by suppression of Th2-mediated immune response. Due to its promising anti-asthmatic effect, it is recommended that embelin should be investigated in clinical trials against asthma. It should also be further explored against COVID-19 or COVID-like diseases due to its ameliorative effects on cytokines and immune cell infiltration.

4.
Front Genet ; 12: 581726, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172965

ABSTRACT

In <20 years, we have witnessed three different epidemics with coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in human populations, causing widespread mortality. SARS-CoV-2, through its rapid global spread, has led to the pandemic that we call COVID-19. As of February 1, 2021, the global infections linked to SARS-CoV-2 stand at 103,503,340, with 2,236,960 deaths, and 75,108,099 recoveries. This review attempts to highlight host-pathogen interaction with particular emphasis on the role of epigenetic machinery in regulating the disease. Although researchers, since the start of the pandemic, have been intensely engaged in diverse areas to understand the mechanisms involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to find answers that can bring about innovative ways to swiftly treat and prevent disease progression, this review provides an overview on how the host epigenetics is modulated and subverted by SARS-CoV-2 to enter the host cells and drive immunopathogenesis. Epigenetics is the study that combines genetic and non-genetic factors controlling phenotypic variation, which are primarily a consequence of external and environmental stimuli. These stimuli alter the activity of a gene without impinging on the DNA code. In viral-host interactions, DNA/RNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, chromatin remodeling, and histone modifications are known to regulate and modulate host gene expression patterns. Viruses such as Coronaviruses (an RNA virus) show intrinsic association with these processes. They have evolved the ability to tamper with host epigenetic machinery to interfere with immune sensing pathways to evade host immune response, thereby enhancing its replication and pathogenesis post-entry. These epigenetic alterations allow the virus to weaken the host's immune response to successfully spread infection. How this occurs, and what epigenetic mechanisms are altered is poorly understood both for coronaviruses and other respiratory RNA viruses. The review highlights several cutting-edge aspects of epigenetic work primarily pertinent to SARS-CoV-2, which has been published between 2019 and 2020 to showcase the current knowledge both in terms of success and failures and take lessons that will assist us in understanding the disease to develop better treatments suited to kill SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Nano Today ; 36: 101051, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957317

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic. At the time of writing this (October 14, 2020), more than 38.4 million people have become affected, and 1.0 million people have died across the world. The death rate is undoubtedly correlated with the cytokine storm and other pathological pulmonary characteristics, as a result of which the lungs cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the body's vital organs. While diversified drugs have been tested as a first line therapy, the complexity of fatal cases has not been reduced so far, and the world is looking for a treatment to combat the virus. However, to date, and despite such promise, we have received very limited information about the potential of nanomedicine to fight against COVID-19 or as an adjunct therapy in the treatment regimen. Over the past two decades, various therapeutic strategies, including direct-acting antiviral drugs, immunomodulators, a few non-specific drugs (simple to complex), have been explored to treat Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), influenza, and sometimes the common flu, thus, correlating and developing specific drugs centric to COVID-19 is possible. This review article focuses on the pulmonary pathology caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other viral pathogens, highlighting possible nanomedicine therapeutic strategies that should be further tested immediately.

6.
Autophagy ; 16(12): 2260-2266, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593676

ABSTRACT

During the last week of December 2019, Wuhan (China) was confronted with the first case of respiratory tract disease 2019 (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the rapid outbreak of the transmission (~3.64 million positive cases and high mortality as of 5 May 2020), the world is looking for immediate and better therapeutic options. Still, much information is not known, including origin of the disease, complete genomic characterization, mechanism of transmission dynamics, extent of spread, possible genetic predisposition, clinical and biological diagnosis, complete details of disease-induced pathogenicity, and possible therapeutic options. Although several known drugs are already under clinical evaluation with many in repositioning strategies, much attention has been paid to the aminoquinoline derivates, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). These molecules are known regulators of endosomes/lysosomes, which are subcellular organelles central to autophagy processes. By elevating the pH of acidic endosomes/lysosomes, CQ/HCQ inhibit the autophagic process. In this short perspective, we discuss the roles of CQ/HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and propose new ways of possible treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the molecules that selectivity target autophagy.Abbreviation: ACE2: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2; CoV: coronavirus; CQ: chloroquine; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(2): 100016, 2020 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143795

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has infected millions, with more than 275,000 fatal cases as of May 8, 2020. Currently, there are no specific COVID-19 therapies. Most patients depend on mechanical ventilation. Current COVID-19 data clearly highlight that cytokine storm and activated immune cell migration to the lungs characterize the early immune response to COVID-19 that causes severe lung damage and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In view of uncertainty associated with immunosuppressive treatments, such as corticosteroids and their possible secondary effects, including risks of secondary infections, we suggest immunotherapies as an adjunct therapy in severe COVID-19 cases. Such immunotherapies based on inflammatory cytokine neutralization, immunomodulation, and passive viral neutralization not only reduce inflammation, inflammation-associated lung damage, or viral load but could also prevent intensive care unit hospitalization and dependency on mechanical ventilation, both of which are limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/transplantation
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