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2.
Neurol Sci ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The infectious disease phenotype of acute stroke associated with COVID-19 has been poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the neurovascular and infectious disease phenotype of stroke patients with and without COVID-19 infection, and their effect on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with acute stroke, admitted to any ward of a hub hospital for stroke in Lombardy, Italy, during the first wave of COVID-19. Demographic, neurovascular, infectious disease, and respiratory characteristics were collected. The effect of clinical variables on survival was evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-seven patients with acute stroke were recruited; 30 (21.9%) patients had COVID-19 and represented 2.5% of the 1218 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the study period. Demographics, comorbidities, stroke type, stroke severity, and etiology did not differ between COVID + stroke patients and non-COVID stroke patients, except for an excess of multi-embolic ischemic stroke in the COVID + group. Most COVID + stroke patients had symptomatic infection (60%) and interstitial pneumonia (70%). COVID + stroke patients required more frequently respiratory support (77% versus 29%; p < 0.0001) and had higher in-hospital mortality (40% versus 12%; p = 0.0005) than non-COVID stroke patients. Mortality was independently associated with symptomatic interstitial pneumonia (aOR 6.7; 95% CI 2.0-22.5; p = 0.002) and, to a lesser extent, with NIHSS on admission (aOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.03-1.2; p = 0.007) and recanalization therapies (aOR 0.2; 95% CI 0.04-0.98; p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Symptomatic interstitial pneumonia was the major driver of in-hospital mortality in COVID + stroke patients.

3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 47: 101409, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800090

ABSTRACT

Background: In COVACTA, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), tocilizumab did not improve 28-day mortality, but shortened hospital and intensive care unit stay. Longer-term effects of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 are unknown. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 beyond day 28 and its impact on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance and antibody response in COVACTA were investigated. Methods: Adults in Europe and North America hospitalised with COVID-19 (N = 452) between April 3, 2020 and May 28, 2020 were randomly assigned (2:1) to double-blind intravenous tocilizumab or placebo and assessed for efficacy and safety through day 60. Assessments included mortality, time to hospital discharge, SARS-CoV-2 viral load in nasopharyngeal swab and serum samples, and neutralising anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04320615. Findings: By day 60, 24·5% (72/294) of patients in the tocilizumab arm and 25·0% (36/144) in the placebo arm died (weighted difference -0·5% [95% CI -9·1 to 8·0]), and 67·0% (197/294) in the tocilizumab arm and 63·9% (92/144) in the placebo arm were discharged from the hospital. Serious infections occurred in 24·1% (71/295) of patients in the tocilizumab arm and 29·4% (42/143) in the placebo arm. Median time to negative reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction result in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal samples was 15·0 days (95% CI 14·0 to 21·0) in the tocilizumab arm and 21·0 days (95% CI 14·0 to 28·0) in the placebo arm. All tested patients had positive test results for neutralising anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at day 60. Interpretation: There was no mortality benefit with tocilizumab through day 60. Tocilizumab did not impair viral clearance or host immune response, and no new safety signals were observed. Future investigations may explore potential biomarkers to optimize patient selection for tocilizumab treatment and combination therapy with other treatments. Funding: F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under OT number HHSO100201800036C.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 834354, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785362

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our knowledge on the long-term consequences of COVID-19 is still scarce despite the clinical relevance of persisting syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported outcomes, including assessment by specific questionnaires of health impairment and symptoms. Methods: This is a prospective, observational and multicenter cohort study coordinated by Fondazione IRCSS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano and Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS including eight hospitals located in North and Central Italy. A telephone interview to assess rehospitalization, access to health care resources, general health status subjective evaluation, and symptoms was performed at 12 months after the discharge in patients admitted to hospital because of COVID-19 from February 2020 to the end of May 2020. Results: Among the 776 patients discharged alive, 44 (5.7%) died, 456 subjects (58.8%) completed the questionnaire and 276 (35.6%) were not reachable or refused to join the telephone interview. The mean age of the study population was 59.4 years (SD 14.1), 69.8% of individuals needed oxygen support during hospitalization and 10.4% were admitted to ICU. Overall, 91.7% of participants reported at least one symptom/sequela at 12 months. Exertional dyspnea (71.7%), fatigue (54.6%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (32.8%) were the most reported ones. Health issues after discharge including hospitalization or access to emergency room were described by 19.4% of subjects. Female and presence of comorbidities were independent predictors of whealth impairment and presence of ≥2 symptoms/sequelae after 12 months from hospitalization for COVID-19. Conclusions: Patient-reported symptoms and sequelae, principally dyspnea and fatigue, are found in most individuals even 12 months from COVID-19 hospitalization. Long-term follow-up based on patient-centered outcome can contribute to plan tailored interventions.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329395

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation may play a role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19;however, its role in the pediatric manifestations of this disease including MIS-C and chilblain-like lesions (CLL), otherwise known as COVID toes, remains unclear. Studying multinational cohorts, we found that, in CLL, NETs were significantly increased in serum and skin. There was geographic variability in the prevalence of increased NETs in MIS-C, in association with disease severity. MIS-C and CLL serum samples displayed decreased NET degradation ability, in association with C1q and G-actin or anti-NET antibodies, respectively, but not with genetic variants of DNases. In adult COVID-19, persistent elevations in NETs post-disease diagnosis were detected but did not occur in asymptomatic infection. COVID-19-affected adults displayed significant prevalence of impaired NET degradation, in association with anti-DNase1L3, G-actin, and specific disease manifestations, but not with genetic variants of DNases. NETs were detected in many organs of adult patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Infection with the Omicron variant was associated with decreased levels of NETs when compared to other SARS-CoV-2 strains. These data support a role for NETs in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 in pediatric and adult patients.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308761

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with high mortality and may overwhelm health care systems, due to the surge patients requiring advanced respiratory support. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds required many patients to be treated outside the ICU despite severe gas exchange impairment. Helmet is as effective interface to provide Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) non-invasively. We report data about the usefulness of helmet CPAP during pandemic, either as an effective treatment, a bridge to intubation or a rescue therapy for patients with care limitations (DNI). Methods: In this observational study we collected data regarding patients failing standard oxygen therapy (i.e. non-rebreathing mask) due to COVID-19 pneumonia treated with a free flow helmet CPAP system. Patients’ data were recorded before, at initiation of CPAP treatment and once a day, thereafter. CPAP failure was defined as a composite outcome of intubation or death. Results: A total of 306 patients were included;42% were deemed as DNI. Helmet CPAP treatment was successful in 69% of the full-treatment and 28% of the DNI patients ( P< 0.001). With helmet CPAP, PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio doubled from about 100 to 200 mmHg ( P< 0.001);respiratory rate decreased from 28 [22-32] to 24 [20-29] breaths per minute, P <0.001). C-Reactive Protein, time to oxygen mask failure, age, PaO 2 /FiO 2 during CPAP, number of comorbidities were independently associated with CPAP failure. Helmet CPAP was maintained for 6 [3-9] days, almost continuously during the first two days. None of the full treatment patients died before intubation in the wards. Conclusions: : Helmet CPAP treatment is feasible for several days outside the ICU, despite persistent impairment in gas exchange. It was used, without escalating to intubation, in the majority of full treatment patients after standard oxygen therapy failed. DNI patients could benefit from helmet CPAP as rescue therapy to improve survival. Trial Registration: NCT04424992

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834851, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686489

ABSTRACT

Understanding the cause of sex disparities in COVID-19 outcomes is a major challenge. We investigate sex hormone levels and their association with outcomes in COVID-19 patients, stratified by sex and age. This observational, retrospective, cohort study included 138 patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19, hospitalized in Italy between February 1 and May 30, 2020. The association between sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and outcomes (ARDS, severe COVID-19, in-hospital mortality) was explored in 120 patients aged 50 years and over. STROBE checklist was followed. The median age was 73.5 years [IQR 61, 82]; 55.8% were male. In older males, testosterone was lower if ARDS and severe COVID-19 were reported than if not (3.6 vs. 5.3 nmol/L, p =0.0378 and 3.7 vs. 8.5 nmol/L, p =0.0011, respectively). Deceased males had lower testosterone (2.4 vs. 4.8 nmol/L, p =0.0536) and higher estradiol than survivors (40 vs. 24 pg/mL, p = 0.0006). Testosterone was negatively associated with ARDS (OR 0.849 [95% CI 0.734, 0.982]), severe COVID-19 (OR 0.691 [95% CI 0.546, 0.874]), and in-hospital mortality (OR 0.742 [95% CI 0.566, 0.972]), regardless of potential confounders, though confirmed only in the regression model on males. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death (OR 1.051 [95% CI 1.018, 1.084]), confirmed in both sex models. In males, higher testosterone seems to be protective against any considered outcome. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death in both sexes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Sex Characteristics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Biomed ; 92(6): e2021464, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: our study aimed to investigate the association between anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine and the previously infected/infection-naïve status, age, and gender in a population of health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: all the population of immunocompetent HCWs were vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 based on a technical data sheet. SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay was performed 25 to 32 days after the second dose. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was used as a categorical variable, since 2080 BAU/ml was the median IgG value. The multivariate logistic regression model included the previously infected/infection-naïve status, age groups, and gender. RESULTS: All HCWs tested were seropositive. The odds ratio (OR) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG> 2080 BAU / ml between previously infected and infection-naïve HCWs was 2.05 [95% CI 1.1-3.8].  Older age groups had lower percentage of HCWs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG> 2080 BAU / mL than younger groups. Finally, no association between gender and IgG level was found. CONCLUSIONS: our study showed an excellent antibody response to vaccination with BNT162b2 after two doses. A significant difference was observed between anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level with age and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S77-S77, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602523

ABSTRACT

Background T cells are central to the early identification and clearance of viral infections and support antibody generation by B cells, making them desirable for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines. We combined 2 high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response that is highly sensitive, durable, diagnostic, and discriminatory between natural infection and vaccination. Methods We deeply characterized 116 convalescent COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses via antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I and 284 class II viral peptides. We also performed T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing on 1815 samples from 1521 PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 3500 controls to identify shared public TCRs from SARS-CoV-2-associated CD8 and CD4 T cells. Combining these approaches with additional samples from vaccinated individuals, we characterized the response to natural infection as well as vaccination by separating responses to spike protein from other viral targets. Results We find that T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response peaks about 1-2 weeks after infection and is detectable at least several months after recovery. Applying these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose past SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3–7 = 85.1%;Day 8–14 = 94.8%) that persists after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 95.4%). Finally, by evaluating TCRs binding epitopes targeting all non-spike SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we were able to separate natural infection from vaccination with > 99% specificity. Conclusion TCR repertoire sequencing from whole blood reliably measures the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points, and distinguishes post-infection vs. vaccine immune responses with high specificity. This approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in clinical diagnostics as well as vaccine development and monitoring. Disclosures Thomas M. Snyder, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Rachel M. Gittelman, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Mark Klinger, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Damon H. May, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Edward J. Osborne, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ruth Taniguchi, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) H. Jabran Zahid, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Rebecca Elyanow, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Sudeb C. Dalai, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ian M. Kaplan, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Jennifer N. Dines, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Matthew T. Noakes, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ravi Pandya, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Lance Baldo, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder, Leadership Interest) James R. Heath, PhD, Merck (Research Grant or Support, Funding (from BARDA) for the ISB INCOV project, but had no role in planning the research or in writing the paper.) Joaquin Martinez-Lopez, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Consultant) Jonathan M. Carlson, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Harlan S. Robins, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Board Member, Employee, Shareholder)

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care
11.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292804

ABSTRACT

T cells are involved in the early identification and clearance of viral infections and also support the development of antibodies by B cells. This central role for T cells makes them a desirable target for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we combined two high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2. First, at the individual level, we deeply characterized 3 acutely infected and 58 recovered COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping their CD8 T-cell response through antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I presented viral peptides (class II data in a forthcoming study). Then, at the population level, we performed T-cell repertoire sequencing on 1,015 samples (from 827 COVID-19 subjects) as well as 3,500 controls to identify shared "public" T-cell receptors (TCRs) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from both CD8 and CD4 T cells. Collectively, our data reveal that CD8 T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peaks about one to two weeks after infection and is detectable for several months after recovery. As an application of these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples, and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high early sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3-7 = 83.8% [95% CI = 77.6-89.4];Day 8-14 = 92.4% [87.6-96.6]) as well as lasting sensitivity after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 96.7% [93.0-99.2]). These results demonstrate an approach to reliably assess the adaptive immune response both soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points. This blood-based molecular approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in vaccine development as well as clinical diagnostics and monitoring.

12.
Panminerva Med ; 64(1): 24-30, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older people hospitalized for COVID-19 are at highest risk of death. Frailty Assessment can detect heterogeneity in risk among people of the same chronological age. We investigated the association between frailty and in-hospital and medium-term mortality in middle-aged and older adults with COVID-19 during the first two pandemic waves. METHODS: This study is an observational multicenter study. We recorded sociodemographic factors (age, sex), smoking status, date of symptom onset, biological data, need for supplemental oxygen, comorbidities, cognitive and functional status, in-hospital mortality. We calculated a Frailty Index (FI) as the ratio between deficits presented and total deficits considered for each patient (theoretical range 0-1). We also assessed the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Mortality at follow-up was ascertained from a regional registry. RESULTS: In total, 1344 patients were included; median age 68 years (Q1-Q3, 56-79); 857 (64%) were men. Median CFS score was 3 (Q1-Q3 2-5) and was lower in younger vs. older patients. Median FI was 0.06 (Q1-Q3 0.03-0.09) and increased with increasing age. Overall, 244 (18%) patients died in-hospital and 288 (22%) over a median follow-up of 253 days. FI and CFS were significantly associated with risk of death. In two different models using the same covariates, each increment of 0.1 in FI increased the overall hazard of death by 35% (HR=1.35, 95%CI 1.23-1.48), similar to the hazard for each increment of CFS (HR=1.37, 95%CI 1.25-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, assessed with the FI or CFS, predicts in-hospital and medium-term mortality and may help estimate vulnerability in middle-aged and older COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Frail Elderly , Frailty/complications , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-291897

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the cause of sex disparities in COVID-19 outcomes is a major challenge. We investigate sex hormone levels and their association with outcomes in COVID-19 patients, stratified by sex and age. Methods: This observational, retrospective, cohort study included 138 patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19, hospitalized in Italy between February 1 and May 30, 2020. The association between sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and outcomes (ARDS, severe COVID-19, in-hospital mortality) was explored in 120 patients aged 50 years and over. STROBE checklist was followed. Findings: The median age was 73·5 years [IQR 61, 82];55·8% were male. In older males, testosterone was lower if ARDS and severe COVID-19 were reported than if not (3·6 vs. 5·3 nmol/L, p =0·0378 and 3·7 vs. 8·5 nmol/L, p =0·0011, respectively). Deceased males had lower testosterone (2·4 vs. 4·8 nmol/L, p =0·0536) and higher estradiol than survivors (40 vs. 24 pg/mL, p = 0·0006). Testosterone was negatively associated with ARDS (OR 0·849 [95% CI 0·734, 0·982]), severe COVID-19 (OR 0·691 [95% CI 0·546, 0·874]), and in-hospital mortality (OR 0·742 [95% CI 0·566, 0·972]), regardless of potential confounders, though confirmed only in the regression model on males. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death (OR 1·051 [95% CI 1·018, 1.084]), confirmed in both sex models. Interpretation: In males, higher testosterone seems to be protective against any considered outcome. Higher estradiol was associated with a higher probability of death in both sexes.

15.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 405, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab blocks pro-inflammatory activity of interleukin-6 (IL-6), involved in pathogenesis of pneumonia the most frequent cause of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A multicenter, single-arm, hypothesis-driven trial was planned, according to a phase 2 design, to study the effect of tocilizumab on lethality rates at 14 and 30 days (co-primary endpoints, a priori expected rates being 20 and 35%, respectively). A further prospective cohort of patients, consecutively enrolled after the first cohort was accomplished, was used as a secondary validation dataset. The two cohorts were evaluated jointly in an exploratory multivariable logistic regression model to assess prognostic variables on survival. RESULTS: In the primary intention-to-treat (ITT) phase 2 population, 180/301 (59.8%) subjects received tocilizumab, and 67 deaths were observed overall. Lethality rates were equal to 18.4% (97.5% CI: 13.6-24.0, P = 0.52) and 22.4% (97.5% CI: 17.2-28.3, P < 0.001) at 14 and 30 days, respectively. Lethality rates were lower in the validation dataset, that included 920 patients. No signal of specific drug toxicity was reported. In the exploratory multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio negatively affected survival, while the concurrent use of steroids was associated with greater survival. A statistically significant interaction was found between tocilizumab and respiratory support, suggesting that tocilizumab might be more effective in patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab reduced lethality rate at 30 days compared with null hypothesis, without significant toxicity. Possibly, this effect could be limited to patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. Registration EudraCT (2020-001110-38); clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04317092).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Off-Label Use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Validation Studies as Topic
17.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 3991-4014, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456166

ABSTRACT

The dramatic increase of the global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a critical issue that needs to be investigated to evaluate the associated risk factors for acquisition and worse outcome. The interplay between immune activation and immune depression during SARS-CoV-2 infection is an intriguing topic that still needs to be clarified. The role of HIV in SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well defined. Chronic inflammation linked to HIV infection could be a driver for a worse prognosis in people living with HIV (PLWH). We explored the role of HIV as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity and which factors contributed to a worse prognosis when HIV infection was present. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV2" and "HIV" or "AIDS" and ("hospitalization" or "intensive care" or "mechanical ventilation" or "death" OR "mortality"), both in MeSH and as free text in all fields. Our review focused on 21 studies that enrolled at least 40 PLWH. In most studies, HIV infection did not represent a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the contrary, the risk of severe COVID-19 and hospitalization was higher in PLWH. Low CD4 cell count consistently emerged as a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Comorbidities, either in people with or without HIV diagnosis, played a key role, especially because of their early development in PLWH.

18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(3): 398-409, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore candidate prognostic and predictive biomarkers identified in retrospective observational studies (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, d-dimer, and platelets) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia after treatment with tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, using data from the COVACTA trial in patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. DESIGN: Exploratory analysis from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. SETTING: Hospitals in North America and Europe. PATIENTS: Adults hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia receiving standard care. INTERVENTION: Randomly assigned 2:1 to IV tocilizumab 8 mg/kg or placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Candidate biomarkers were measured in 295 patients in the tocilizumab arm and 142 patients in the placebo arm. Efficacy outcomes assessed were clinical status on a seven-category ordinal scale (1, discharge; 7, death), mortality, time to hospital discharge, and mechanical ventilation (if not receiving it at randomization) through day 28. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers were evaluated continuously with proportional odds, binomial or Fine-Gray models, and additional sensitivity analyses. Modeling in the placebo arm showed all candidate biomarkers except lactate dehydrogenase and d-dimer were strongly prognostic for day 28 clinical outcomes of mortality, mechanical ventilation, clinical status, and time to hospital discharge. Modeling in the tocilizumab arm showed a predictive value of ferritin for day 28 clinical outcomes of mortality (predictive interaction, p = 0.03), mechanical ventilation (predictive interaction, p = 0.01), and clinical status (predictive interaction, p = 0.02) compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple biomarkers prognostic for clinical outcomes were confirmed in COVACTA. Ferritin was identified as a predictive biomarker for the effects of tocilizumab in the COVACTA patient population; high ferritin levels were associated with better clinical outcomes for tocilizumab compared with placebo at day 28.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Biomarkers , COVID-19/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Length of Stay , Male , Patient Discharge , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409869

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on in-hospital mortality and on incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was also investigated. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the association between renal function groups (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, eGFR, >60 mL/min, 30-59 mL/min, <30 mL/min) and in-hospital all-cause mortality and incident AF and AKI. A cohort of 2816 patients admitted in one year for COVID-19 disease in two large hospitals was analyzed. The independent predictors of mortality were severe CKD [HR 1.732 (95%CI 1.264-2.373)], older age [HR 1.054 (95%CI 1.044-1.065)], cerebrovascular disease [HR 1.335 (95%CI (1.016-1.754)], lower platelet count [HR 0.997 (95%CI 0.996-0.999)], higher C-reactive protein [HR 1.047 (95%CI 1.035-1.058)], and higher plasma potassium value 1.374 (95%CI 1.139-1.658). When incident AKI was added to the final survival model, it was associated with higher mortality [HR 2.202 (1.728-2.807)]. Incident AF was more frequent in patients with CKD, but in the multivariable model only older age was significantly related with a higher incidence of AF [OR 1.036 (95%CI 1.022-1.050)]. Incident AF was strongly associated with the onset of AKI [HR 2.619 (95%CI 1.711-4.009)]. In this large population of COVID-19 patients, the presence of severe CKD was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. In addition, patients who underwent AKI during hospitalization had a doubled risk of death. Incident AF became more frequent as eGFR decreased and it was significantly associated with the onset of AKI.

20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(2): 293-299, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to report the prevalence of delirium on admission to the unit in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection, to identify the factors associated with delirium, and to evaluate the association between delirium and in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTINGS: Acute medical units in four Italian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 516 patients (median age 78 years) admitted to the participating centers with SARS-CoV-2 infection from February 22 to May 17, 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive medical assessment with detailed history, physical examinations, functional status, laboratory and imaging procedures. On admission, delirium was determined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition) criteria, 4AT, m-Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, or clinical impression depending on the site. The primary outcomes were delirium rates and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 73 (14.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.0-17.3%) patients presented delirium on admission. Factors significantly associated with delirium were dementia (odds ratio, OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 2.03-10.69), the number of chronic diseases (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03; 1.40), and chest X-ray or CT opacity (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.12-9.64 and 3.35, 95% CI = 1.07-10.47, for multiple or bilateral opacities and single opacity vs no opacity, respectively). There were 148 (33.4%) in-hospital deaths in the no-delirium group and 43 (58.9%) in the delirium group (P-value assessed using the Gray test <.001). As assessed by a multivariable Cox model, patients with delirium on admission showed an almost twofold increased hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality with respect to patients without delirium (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.25-2.83). CONCLUSION: Delirium is prevalent and associated with in-hospital mortality among older patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/mortality , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
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