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Aging Cell ; 21(3): e13545, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741316


Frailty affects the physical, cognitive, and social domains exposing older adults to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The mechanisms linking frailty and cardiovascular outcomes are mostly unknown. Here, we studied the association of abundance (flow cytometry) and gene expression profile (RNAseq) of stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and molecular markers of inflammaging (ELISA) with the cardiorespiratory phenotype and prospective adverse events of individuals classified according to levels of frailty. Two cohorts of older adults were enrolled in the study. In a cohort of pre-frail 35 individuals (average age: 75 years), a physical frailty score above the median identified subjects with initial alterations in cardiorespiratory function. RNA sequencing revealed S100A8/A9 upregulation in HSPCs from the bone marrow (>10-fold) and peripheral blood (>200-fold) of individuals with greater physical frailty. Moreover higher frailty was associated with increased alarmins S100A8/A9 and inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood. We then studied a cohort of 104 more frail individuals (average age: 81 years) with multidomain health deficits. Reduced levels of circulating HSPCs and increased S100A8/A9 concentrations were independently associated with the frailty index. Remarkably, low HSPCs and high S100A8/A9 simultaneously predicted major adverse cardiovascular events at 1-year follow-up after adjustment for age and frailty index. In conclusion, inflammaging characterized by alarmin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in pre-frail individuals is mirrored by the pauperization of HSPCs in frail older people with comorbidities. S100A8/A9 is upregulated within HSPCs, identifying a phenotype that associates with poor cardiovascular outcomes.

Alarmins , Frailty , Aged , Calgranulin A/genetics , Calgranulin A/metabolism , Calgranulin B/genetics , Calgranulin B/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Frailty/genetics , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Prospective Studies
Diabetes ; 71(4): 788-794, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643401


Admission hyperglycemia has emerged worldwide as a predictor of poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome. Hyperglycemia leads to a defect in circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), which, in turn, predicts diabetic complications. Here, we explored whether reduced HSPCs mediated at least part of the prognostic effect of hyperglycemia on COVID-19 outcome. We found that patients with COVID-19 (n = 100) hospitalized in a nonintensive setting displayed dramatically (50-60%) reduced levels of HSPCs measured by flow cytometry as CD34+, CD34+CD45dim, or CD34+CD133+ cells, compared with control subjects (n = 595). This finding was highly significant (all P < 10-10) after multivariable adjustment, or manual 1:1 patient match, or propensity score matching. Admission hyperglycemia (≥7.0 mmol/L) was present in 45% of patients, was associated with a significant further ∼30% HSPCs reduction, and predicted a 2.6-fold increased risk of the primary outcome of adverse COVID-19 course (admittance to the intensive care unit or death). Low HSPCs were also associated with advanced age, higher peak C-reactive protein, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Independently from confounders, 1 SD lower CD34+ HSPCs was associated with a more than threefold higher risk of adverse outcome. Upon formal analysis, reduction of HSPCs was a significant mediator of the admission hyperglycemia on COVID-19 outcome, being responsible for 28% of its prognostic effect.

COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/metabolism
Acta Diabetol ; 59(2): 287, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624425

Seeds , Humans
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 168: 108374, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714006


AIMS: We investigated whether pre-existing diabetes, newly-diagnosed diabetes, and admission hyperglycemia were associated with COVID-19 severity independently from confounders. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on patients with COVID-19 hospitalized between February and April 2020 in an outbreak hospital in North-East Italy. Pre-existing diabetes was defined by self-reported history, electronic medical records, or ongoing medications. Newly-diagnosed diabetes was defined by HbA1c and fasting glucose. The primary outcome was a composite of ICU admission or death. RESULTS: 413 subjects were included, 107 of whom (25.6%) had diabetes, including 21 newly-diagnosed. Patients with diabetes were older and had greater comorbidity burden. The primary outcome occurred in 37.4% of patients with diabetes compared to 20.3% in those without (RR 1.85; 95%C.I. 1.33-2.57; p < 0.001). The association was stronger for newly-diagnosed compared to pre-existing diabetes (RR 3.06 vs 1.55; p = 0.004). Higher glucose level at admission was associated with COVID-19 severity, with a stronger association among patients without as compared to those with pre-existing diabetes (interaction p < 0.001). Admission glucose was correlated with most clinical severity indexes and its association with adverse outcome was mostly mediated by a worse respiratory function. CONCLUSION: Newly-diagnosed diabetes and admission hyperglycemia are powerful predictors of COVID-19 severity due to rapid respiratory deterioration.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Age of Onset , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(10): 1946-1950, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642711


Because other coronaviruses enter the cells by binding to dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4), it has been speculated that DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) may exert an activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In the absence of clinical trial results, we analysed epidemiological data to support or discard such a hypothesis. We retrieved information on exposure to DPP-4is among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) hospitalized for COVID-19 at an outbreak hospital in Italy. As a reference, we retrieved information on exposure to DPP-4is among matched patients with T2D in the same region. Of 403 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 85 had T2D. The rate of exposure to DPP-4is was similar between T2D patients with COVID-19 (10.6%) and 14 857 matched patients in the region (8.8%), or 793 matched patients in the local outpatient clinic (15.4%), 8284 matched patients hospitalized for other reasons (8.5%), and when comparing 71 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia (11.3%) with 351 matched patients with pneumonia of another aetiology (10.3%). T2D patients with COVID-19 who were on DPP-4is had a similar disease outcome as those who were not. In summary, we found no evidence that DPP-4is might affect hospitalization for COVID-19.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
Diabetes Ther ; 11(6): 1369-1379, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232633


INTRODUCTION: In late February 2020, due to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the Italian Government closed down all educational and sport activities. In March, it introduced further measures to stop the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), placing the country in a state of almost complete lockdown. We report the impact of these restrictions on glucose control among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Data were collected on 33 individuals with T1D who were monitoring their glucose levels using a flash glucose monitoring device and remotely connected to the diabetes clinic on a cloud platform. We retrieved information on average glucose, standard deviation and percentage time in hypoglycaemia (< 70 mg/dl), glucose range (70-180 mg/dl) and hyperglycaemia (> 180 mg/dl). We compared glycaemic measures collected during lockdown to those collected before the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and to the periods immediately before lockdown. RESULTS: In 20 patients who had stopped working and were at home as a result of the lockdown, overall glycaemic control improved during the first 7 days of the lockdown as compared to the weeks before the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Average glucose declined from 177 ± 45 mg/dl (week before lockdown) to 160 ± 40 mg/dl (lockdown; p = 0.005) and the standard deviation improved significantly. Time in range increased from 54.4 to 65.2% (p = 0.010), and time in hyperglycaemia decreased from 42.3 to 31.6% (p = 0.016). The number of scans per day remained unchanged. In 13 patients who continued working, none of the measures of glycaemic control changed during lockdown. CONCLUSION: Despite the limited possibility to exercise and the incumbent psychologic stress, glycaemic control improved in patients with T1D who stopped working during the lockdown, suggesting that slowing down routine daily activities can have beneficial effects on T1D management, at least in the short term.