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1.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 109-119, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infants younger than 6 months of age are at high risk for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and are not eligible for vaccination. Transplacental transfer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after maternal Covid-19 vaccination may confer protection against Covid-19 in infants. METHODS: We used a case-control test-negative design to assess the effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants younger than 6 months of age. Between July 1, 2021, and March 8, 2022, we enrolled infants hospitalized for Covid-19 (case infants) and infants hospitalized without Covid-19 (control infants) at 30 hospitals in 22 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of full maternal vaccination (two doses of mRNA vaccine) among case infants and control infants during circulation of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and the B.1.1.259 (omicron) variant (December 19, 2021, to March 8, 2022). RESULTS: A total of 537 case infants (181 of whom had been admitted to a hospital during the delta period and 356 during the omicron period; median age, 2 months) and 512 control infants were enrolled and included in the analyses; 16% of the case infants and 29% of the control infants had been born to mothers who had been fully vaccinated against Covid-19 during pregnancy. Among the case infants, 113 (21%) received intensive care (64 [12%] received mechanical ventilation or vasoactive infusions). Two case infants died from Covid-19; neither infant's mother had been vaccinated during pregnancy. The effectiveness of maternal vaccination against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 65) overall, 80% (95% CI, 60 to 90) during the delta period, and 38% (95% CI, 8 to 58) during the omicron period. Effectiveness was 69% (95% CI, 50 to 80) when maternal vaccination occurred after 20 weeks of pregnancy and 38% (95% CI, 3 to 60) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vaccination with two doses of mRNA vaccine was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for Covid-19, including for critical illness, among infants younger than 6 months of age. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , mRNA Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
2.
Hosp Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe COVID-19-related pediatric hospitalizations during a period of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance and to determine age-specific factors associated with severe illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We abstracted data from medical charts to conduct a cross-sectional study of patients aged <21 years hospitalized at 6 US children's hospitals during July-August 2021 for COVID-19 or with an incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Among patients with COVID-19, we assessed factors associated with severe illness by calculating age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR). We defined severe illness as receiving high-flow nasal cannula, positive airway pressure, or invasive mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Of 947 hospitalized patients, 759 (80.1%) had COVID-19, of whom 287 (37.8%) had severe illness. Factors associated with severe illness included coinfection with RSV (PR 3.64) and bacteria (PR 1.88) in infants; RSV coinfection in patients aged 1-4 years (PR 1.96); and obesity in patients aged 5-11 (PR 2.20) and 12-17 years (PR 2.48). Having ≥2 underlying medical conditions was associated with severe illness in patients aged <1 (PR 1.82), 5-11 (PR 3.72), and 12-17 years (PR 3.19). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, factors associated with severe illness included RSV coinfection in those aged <5 years, obesity in those aged 5-17 years, and other underlying conditions for all age groups <18 years. These findings can inform pediatric practice, risk communication, and prevention strategies, including vaccination against COVID-19.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(20): 1899-1909, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant, which led to increased U.S. hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), generated concern about immune evasion and the duration of protection from vaccines in children and adolescents. METHODS: Using a case-control, test-negative design, we assessed vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 leading to hospitalization and against critical Covid-19 (i.e., leading to receipt of life support or to death). From July 1, 2021, to February 17, 2022, we enrolled case patients with Covid-19 and controls without Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine) at least 14 days before illness among case patients and controls, according to time since vaccination for patients 12 to 18 years of age and in periods coinciding with circulation of B.1.617.2 (delta) (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and omicron (December 19, 2021, to February 17, 2022) among patients 5 to 11 and 12 to 18 years of age. RESULTS: We enrolled 1185 case patients (1043 [88%] of whom were unvaccinated, 291 [25%] of whom received life support, and 14 of whom died) and 1627 controls. During the delta-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization for Covid-19 among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 95) 2 to 22 weeks after vaccination and was 92% (95% CI, 80 to 97) at 23 to 44 weeks. Among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (median interval since vaccination, 162 days) during the omicron-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% CI, 9 to 60) against hospitalization for Covid-19, 79% (95% CI, 51 to 91) against critical Covid-19, and 20% (95% CI, -25 to 49) against noncritical Covid-19. During the omicron period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization among children 5 to 11 years of age was 68% (95% CI, 42 to 82; median interval since vaccination, 34 days). CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccination reduced the risk of omicron-associated hospitalization by two thirds among children 5 to 11 years of age. Although two doses provided lower protection against omicron-associated hospitalization than against delta-associated hospitalization among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age, vaccination prevented critical illness caused by either variant. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(42): 1483-1488, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727005

ABSTRACT

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for use in children and adolescents aged 12-15 years and is licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for persons aged ≥16 (1). A randomized placebo-controlled trial demonstrated an efficacy of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 75.3%-100%) in preventing outpatient COVID-19 in persons aged 12-15 years (2); however, data among adolescents on vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 in real-world settings are limited, especially among hospitalized patients. In early September 2021, U.S. pediatric COVID-19 hospitalizations reached the highest level during the pandemic (3,4). In a test-negative, case-control study at 19 pediatric hospitals in 16 states during June 1-September 30, 2021, the effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was assessed among children and adolescents aged 12-18 years. Among 464 hospitalized persons aged 12-18 years (179 case-patients and 285 controls), the median age was 15 years, 72% had at least one underlying condition, including obesity, and 68% attended in-person school. Effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was 93% (95% CI = 83%-97%), during the period when B.1.617.2 (Delta) was the predominant variant. This evaluation demonstrated that 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine are highly effective at preventing COVID-19 hospitalization among persons aged 12-18 years and reinforces the importance of vaccination to protect U.S. youths against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 264-270, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689712

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for persons who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future, to protect them from COVID-19.§ Infants are at risk for life-threatening complications from COVID-19, including acute respiratory failure (1). Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that maternal immunization can provide protection to infants, especially during the high-risk first 6 months of life, through passive transplacental antibody transfer (2). Recent studies of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy suggest the possibility of transplacental transfer of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies that might provide protection to infants (3-5); however, no epidemiologic evidence currently exists for the protective benefits of maternal immunization during pregnancy against COVID-19 in infants. The Overcoming COVID-19 network conducted a test-negative, case-control study at 20 pediatric hospitals in 17 states during July 1, 2021-January 17, 2022, to assess effectiveness of maternal completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants. Among 379 hospitalized infants aged <6 months (176 with COVID-19 [case-infants] and 203 without COVID-19 [control-infants]), the median age was 2 months, 21% had at least one underlying medical condition, and 22% of case- and control-infants were born premature (<37 weeks gestation). Effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants aged <6 months was 61% (95% CI = 31%-78%). Completion of a 2-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy might help prevent COVID-19 hospitalization among infants aged <6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(2): 52-58, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622893

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe postinfectious hyperinflammatory condition, which generally occurs 2-6 weeks after a typically mild or asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1-3). In the United States, the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine is currently authorized for use in children and adolescents aged 5-15 years under an Emergency Use Authorization and is fully licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for persons aged ≥16 years (4). Prelicensure randomized trials in persons aged ≥5 years documented high vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (5),§ and real-world studies in persons aged 12-18 years demonstrated high vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe COVID-19 (6). Recent evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccination is associated with lower MIS-C incidence among adolescents (7); however, VE of the 2-dose Pfizer-BioNTech regimen against MIS-C has not been evaluated. The effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine received ≥28 days before hospital admission in preventing MIS-C was assessed using a test-negative case-control design¶ among hospitalized patients aged 12-18 years at 24 pediatric hospitals in 20 states** during July 1-December 9, 2021, the period when most MIS-C patients could be temporally linked to SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance. Patients with MIS-C (case-patients) and two groups of hospitalized controls matched to case-patients were evaluated: test-negative controls had at least one COVID-19-like symptom and negative SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antigen-based assay results, and syndrome-negative controls were hospitalized patients without COVID-19-like illness. Among 102 MIS-C case-patients and 181 hospitalized controls, estimated effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against MIS-C was 91% (95% CI = 78%-97%). All 38 MIS-C patients requiring life support were unvaccinated. Receipt of 2 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is associated with a high level of protection against MIS-C in persons aged 12-18 years, highlighting the importance of vaccination among all eligible children.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
8.
N Engl J Med ; 386(8): 713-723, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of pediatric hospitalizations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) caused by the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the United States has offered an opportunity to assess the real-world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine in adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. METHODS: We used a case-control, test-negative design to assess vaccine effectiveness against Covid-19 resulting in hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of life-supporting interventions (mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), or death. Between July 1 and October 25, 2021, we screened admission logs for eligible case patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2) in case patients as compared with two hospital-based control groups: patients who had Covid-19-like symptoms but negative results on testing for SARS-CoV-2 (test-negative) and patients who did not have Covid-19-like symptoms (syndrome-negative). RESULTS: A total of 445 case patients and 777 controls were enrolled. Overall, 17 case patients (4%) and 282 controls (36%) had been fully vaccinated. Of the case patients, 180 (40%) were admitted to the ICU, and 127 (29%) required life support; only 2 patients in the ICU had been fully vaccinated. The overall effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against hospitalization for Covid-19 was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90 to 96); the effectiveness was 95% (95% CI, 91 to 97) among test-negative controls and 94% (95% CI, 89 to 96) among syndrome-negative controls. The effectiveness was 98% against ICU admission and 98% against Covid-19 resulting in the receipt of life support. All 7 deaths occurred in patients who were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized adolescent patients, two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were highly effective against Covid-19-related hospitalization and ICU admission or the receipt of life support. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Intensive Care Units , Life Support Care , Male , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(Supplement_1):S677-S677, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1570059
11.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S93-S93, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564706

ABSTRACT

Background Sharp declines in influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) circulation across the U.S. have been described during the pandemic in temporal association with community mitigation for control of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to determine relative frequencies of rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) and other respiratory viruses in children presenting to emergency departments or hospitalized with acute respiratory illness (ARI) prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We conducted a multi-center active prospective ARI surveillance study in children as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) from December 2016 through January 2021. Molecular testing for RV/EV, RSV, influenza, and other respiratory viruses [i.e., human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus (Types 1-4), and adenovirus] were performed on specimens collected from children enrolled children. Cumulative percent positivity of each virus type during March 2020–January 2021 was compared from March-January in the prior seasons (2017-2018, 2018-2019, 2019-2020) using Pearson’s chi-squared. Data are provisional. Results Among 69,403 eligible children, 37,676 (54%) were enrolled and tested for respiratory viruses. The number of both eligible and enrolled children declined in early 2020 (Figure 1), but 4,691 children (52% of eligible) were enrolled and tested during March 2020-January 2021. From March 2020-January 2021, the overall percentage of enrolled children with respiratory testing who had detectable RV/EV was similar compared to the same time period in 2017-2018 and 2019-2020 (Figure 1, Table 1). In contrast, the percent positivity of RSV, influenza, and other respiratory viruses combined declined compared to prior years, (p< 0.001, Figure 1, Table 1). Figure 1. Percentage of Viral Detection Among Enrolled Children Who Received Respiratory Testing, New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN), United States, December 2016 – January 2021 Table 1. Percent of Respiratory Viruses Circulating in March 2020– January 2021, compared to March-January in Prior Years, New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN), United States, March 2017 – January 2021 Conclusion During 2020, RV/EV continued to circulate among children receiving care for ARI despite abrupt declines in other respiratory viruses within this population. These findings warrant further studies to understand virologic, behavioral, biological, and/or environmental factors associated with this continued RV/EV circulation. Disclosures Jennifer E. Schuster, MD, Merck, Sharpe, and Dohme (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support Marian G. Michaels, MD, MPH, Viracor (Grant/Research Support, performs assay for research study no financial support) John V. Williams, MD, GlaxoSmithKline (Advisor or Review Panel member, Independent Data Monitoring Committee)Quidel (Advisor or Review Panel member, Scientific Advisory Board) Elizabeth P. Schlaudecker, MD, MPH, Pfizer (Grant/Research Support)Sanofi Pasteur (Advisor or Review Panel member) Christopher J. Harrison, MD, GSK (Grant/Research Support)Merck (Grant/Research Support)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support) Janet A. Englund, MD, AstraZeneca (Consultant, Grant/Research Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Consultant)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant)Teva Pharmaceuticals (Consultant) Claire Midgley, PhD, Nothing to disclose Natasha B. Halasa, MD, MPH, Genentech (Other Financial or Material Support, I receive an honorarium for lectures - it’s a education grant, supported by genetech)Quidel (Grant/Research Support, Other Financial or Material Support, Donation of supplies/kits)Sanofi (Grant/Research Support, Other Financial or Material Support, HAI/NAI testing) Natasha B. Halasa, MD, MPH, Genentech (Individual(s) Involved: Self): I receive an honorarium for lectures - it’s a education grant, supported by genetech, O her Financial or Material Support, Other Financial or Material Support;Sanofi (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, Research Grant or Support

12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S678-S679, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564623

ABSTRACT

Background Influenza vaccine is recommended for all children ≥6 months, yet uptake is suboptimal. We aimed to quantify child influenza vaccine coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccine hesitancy (VH) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We conducted a prospective, repeated cross-sectional assessment in English and Spanish of caregiver influenza knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and associated VH among hospitalized children 6 months through 18 years at a large pediatric medical institution. Caregivers were enrolled 4-5 days per week, between 12/11/2019--1/31/2020 and 12/8/2020--4/5/2021. VH was assessed using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey;PACV score ≥50 denoted VH. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used. Results During 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 influenza seasons, 269/282 (95%) and 295/307 (96%) of approached caregivers enrolled, respectively. By caregiver report, 94% of children in 2019-2020 and 91% in 2020-2021 were up-to-date with routine childhood vaccines (p=0.13). Specific to influenza vaccine, 73% and 68% of children received or planned to receive influenza vaccine in 2019-2020 and 2020-2021, respectively (p=0.13). Based on PACV score, 13% of parents were VH in 2019-2020 compared with 17% in 2020-2021 (p=0.24;Figure 1). Caregivers who had not/did not intend to vaccinate their children had a higher family income (71% vs. 57% >&30,000, p< 0.01) and were less likely to be Hispanic/Latino (35% vs. 47%, p=0.02). 77% of caregivers were satisfied with information about influenza vaccine received from healthcare providers. Overall, 36% believed “you can get the flu from the flu shot.” In 2020-2021, caregivers were less likely to believe that “flu can be a dangerous infection in children,” to be “scared of my child getting the flu” and to agree that “all children over 6 months of age should receive the flu shot every year” (Table 1). Table 1. Caregiver knowledge and attitudes about seasonal influenza vaccine, 2019-20 versus 2020-21 Figure 1. Influenza vaccine uptake by PACV score during 2019-2020 (a) and 2020-2021 (b) seasons Conclusion During the COVID-19 pandemic, caregivers of hospitalized children were less concerned about influenza than pre-pandemic and misinformation about influenza and influenza vaccine persisted. Increased efforts may be needed to educate caregivers about the importance of influenza immunization during the 2021-22 season. Disclosures C. Mary Healy, MD, Dexcom (Shareholder)Intuitive (Shareholder)Quidel Corporation (Shareholder)Up to Date (Other Financial or Material Support, Honorarium)Vapotherm (Shareholder)

13.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):677-677, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564622

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy (VH) is hindering nationwide vaccination efforts;little is known about caregiver SARS-CoV-2 vaccine acceptance for children. We aimed to identify associations with SARS-CoV-2 VH in caregivers of hospitalized children. Methods We conducted a prospective cross-sectional survey in English and Spanish of caregiver COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and associated VH among hospitalized children 6 months - 18 years at a large pediatric medical institution. Parents were approached daily, averaging 4-5 days/week, from 12/8/2020--4/5/2021. VH was assessed using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey;PACV score ≥50 denoted VH. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used. Responses were categorized. Results 295/307 (96%) of approached caregivers enrolled;79% were ≥ 30 years, 68% were married/ living with a partner, and 57% had at least some college. 36% identified as white, 19% Black, and 46% Hispanic/ Latino. 53% of caregiver children had public insurance. 91% of caregivers self-reported their children were up to date with routine vaccines. 17% of caregivers were vaccine-hesitant overall. 50% of caregivers were willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine themselves. Figure 1 shows intention to vaccinate their child by PACV score. 65% knew someone who was hospitalized for COVID-19. 67% were scared of their child getting COVID-19. However, 49% were scared of their child getting the vaccine, 28% did not want to vaccinate their child and 27% were neutral in the intention to vaccinate their child. Caregivers who did not intend to vaccinate their child were more likely to be Black (27% vs. 16%, p=0.04) and less likely to be Hispanic/ Latino (33% vs. 49%, p=0.02). Table 1 shows attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic and vaccine in caregivers who did or did not intend to vaccinate their child. Figure 1 COVID-19 vaccine uptake by PACV score Table 1 Caregiver attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 vaccine Conclusion The majority of caregivers believe that SARS-CoV-2 vaccine will help control the pandemic, but less than half plan to vaccinate their children. A quarter of caregivers expressed uncertainty regarding the vaccine and therefore may be amenable to education and discussion. COVID-19 VH is different from VH towards routine vaccinations. More research is needed to address COVID-19 specific VH. Disclosures C. Mary Healy, MD, Dexcom (Shareholder)Intuitive (Shareholder)Quidel Corporation (Shareholder)Up to Date (Other Financial or Material Support, Honorarium)Vapotherm (Shareholder)

15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(47): 1623-1628, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534933

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is associated with a broad spectrum of illnesses, including mild to severe acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Enteroviruses, including EV-D68, are typically detected in the United States during late summer through fall, with year-to-year fluctuations. Before 2014, EV-D68 was infrequently reported to CDC (1). However, numbers of EV-D68 detection have increased in recent years, with a biennial pattern observed during 2014-2018 in the United States, after the expansion of surveillance and wider availability of molecular testing. In 2014, a national outbreak of EV-D68 was detected (2). EV-D68 was also reported in 2016 via local (3) and passive national (4) surveillance. EV-D68 detections were limited in 2017, but substantial circulation was observed in 2018 (5). To assess recent levels of circulation, EV-D68 detections in respiratory specimens collected from patients aged <18 years* with ARI evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) or admitted to one of seven U.S. medical centers† within the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) were summarized. This report provides a provisional description of EV-D68 detections during July-November in 2018, 2019 and 2020, and describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of these patients. In 2018, a total of 382 EV-D68 detections in respiratory specimens obtained from patients aged <18 years with ARI were reported by NVSN; the number decreased to six detections in 2019 and 30 in 2020. Among patients aged <18 years with EV-D68 in 2020, 22 (73%) were non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons. EV-D68 detections in 2020 were lower than anticipated based on the biennial circulation pattern observed since 2014. The circulation of EV-D68 in 2020 might have been limited by widespread COVID-19 mitigation measures; how these changes in behavior might influence the timing and levels of circulation in future years is unknown. Ongoing monitoring of EV-D68 detections is warranted for preparedness for EV-D68-associated ARI and AFM.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , United States/epidemiology
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(42): 1483-1488, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485569

ABSTRACT

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for use in children and adolescents aged 12-15 years and is licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for persons aged ≥16 (1). A randomized placebo-controlled trial demonstrated an efficacy of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 75.3%-100%) in preventing outpatient COVID-19 in persons aged 12-15 years (2); however, data among adolescents on vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 in real-world settings are limited, especially among hospitalized patients. In early September 2021, U.S. pediatric COVID-19 hospitalizations reached the highest level during the pandemic (3,4). In a test-negative, case-control study at 19 pediatric hospitals in 16 states during June 1-September 30, 2021, the effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was assessed among children and adolescents aged 12-18 years. Among 464 hospitalized persons aged 12-18 years (179 case-patients and 285 controls), the median age was 15 years, 72% had at least one underlying condition, including obesity, and 68% attended in-person school. Effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was 93% (95% CI = 83%-97%), during the period when B.1.617.2 (Delta) was the predominant variant. This evaluation demonstrated that 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine are highly effective at preventing COVID-19 hospitalization among persons aged 12-18 years and reinforces the importance of vaccination to protect U.S. youths against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(Supplement_1):S170-S171, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1387986

ABSTRACT

Background: A state of emergency was declared in the United States (US) on March 13, 2020 in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Healthcare providers had to alter practice patterns and research priorities. We assessed the frequency of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in children, notably those due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, before and during the pandemic. Methods: We conducted multi-center active prospective ARI surveillance in children as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Children < 18 years with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were enrolled in emergency department and inpatient settings at seven US medical centers over four respiratory seasons during 2016-2020 (Fig 1). Pandemic-related restrictions to patient access limited enrollment in some sites beginning March 2020. Respiratory specimens were collected and tested at each site for RSV and influenza by qRT-PCR. Data were analyzed by calendar weeks. We compared the cumulative proportions of RSV and influenza detection after week 13 in 2020 to the previous seasons using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of 44,247 eligible children, 25,375 (57%) were enrolled and tested for RSV and/or influenza. A total of 6351/25375 (25%) and 3446/25372 (14%) children were RSV and influenza-positive over the four seasons, respectively. In 2020, we noted a rapid drop in eligible and enrolled ARI subjects after weeks 11-13 (Fig 1). During weeks 13-18 in 2016-2019, the three-year average of eligible and enrolled subjects was 1802 and 978, respectively. However, over the same period in 2020, there were 675 eligible and 278 enrolled subjects, representing declines of 62.5% and 71.6% respectively (Fig 1). In 2020, there were no RSV or influenza cases detected in weeks 15-18, and the cumulative proportions of RSV and influenza detection after week 13 were lower compared to previous seasons (p< 0.001) (Figs 1 and 2). Conclusion: There was a considerable decline in ARI visits and the proportion of RSV and influenza detection across seven distinct geographic sites during the pandemic compared with previous seasons. These findings might be attributable to social distancing measures to lessen the spread of SARS-CoV-2, changes in healthcare-seeking behaviors, and limited access to medical care. (Table Presented).

18.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(8): 872-879, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal (NP) specimen testing by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the standard of care for detecting SARS-CoV-2. Data comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the NP specimen to the less invasive, mid-turbinate (MT) nasal specimen in children are limited. METHODS: Paired clinical NP and research MT specimens were collected from children <18 years with respiratory symptoms and tested by molecular assays to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Sensitivity, specificity, and agreement (Cohen's kappa [κ]) were calculated for research MT specimens compared to the clinical NP specimens. RESULTS: Out of 907 children, 569 (62.7%) had parental consent and child assent when appropriate to participate and provided paired MT and NP specimens a median of 4 days after symptom onset (range 1-14 days). 16.5% (n = 94) of MT specimens were positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 20.0% (n = 114) of NP specimens. The sensitivity of research MT compared to clinical NP specimens was 82.5% (95% CI: 74.2%, 88.9%), specificity was 100.0% (95% CI: 99.2%, 100.0%), and overall agreement was 96.1% (κ = 0.87). The sensitivity of MT specimens decreased with time from 100% (95% CI: 59.0%, 100.0%) on day 1 of illness to 82.1% (95% CI: 73.8%, 88.7%) within 14 days of illness onset; sensitivity was generally >90% when specimens were collected within the first week of illness. CONCLUSION: MT specimens, particularly those collected within the first week of illness, have moderately reduced sensitivity and equivalent specificity to less-tolerated NP specimens in pediatric outpatients. MT specimen use in children may represent a viable alternative to NP specimen collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Outpatients , RNA, Viral , Turbinates
19.
Pediatrics ; 148(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nonpharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 likely have a role in decreasing viral acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). We aimed to assess the frequency of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza ARIs before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, population-based ARI surveillance, including children seen in the emergency departments and inpatient settings in 7 US cities for ARI. Respiratory samples were collected and evaluated by molecular testing. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between community mitigation and number of eligible and proportion of RSV and influenza cases. RESULTS: Overall, 45 759 children were eligible; 25 415 were enrolled and tested; 25% and 14% were RSV-positive and influenza-positive, respectively. In 2020, we noted a decrease in eligible and enrolled ARI subjects after community mitigation measures were introduced, with no RSV or influenza detection from April 5, 2020, to April 30, 2020. Compared with 2016-2019, there was an average of 10.6 fewer eligible ARI cases per week per site and 63.9% and 45.8% lower odds of patients testing positive for RSV and influenza, respectively, during the 2020 community mitigation period. In all sites except Seattle, the proportions of positive tests for RSV and influenza in the 2020 community mitigation period were lower than predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Between March and April 2020, rapid declines in ARI cases and the proportions of RSV and influenza in children were consistently noted across 7 US cities, which could be attributable to community mitigation measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
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