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1.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(4): 280-287, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration represents an important strategy for preventing and treating respiratory viral infections in vulnerable populations, including immunocompromised individuals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of mAbs in clinical use against respiratory viruses, highlight factors that modulate mAb clinical efficacy, and provide a perspective on future innovations in the field. This review focuses on publications from the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically, clinical development of a single mAb has taken over a decade. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that this timeframe can be reduced to less than a year and has catalyzed rapid innovations in the field. Several novel mAbs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have received emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the early treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. However, the majority of these mAbs have ultimately failed due to the emergence of variants, highlighting an important lesson about predicting and countering resistance. Novel mAbs are also in clinical use or in late-stage development for the prevention of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vulnerable populations. Several factors can be modulated to improve the clinical efficacy of mAbs. For example, Fc modifications can extend mAb half-life and increase respiratory tract bioavailability, both of which are attractive properties for achieving protection against respiratory viruses. SUMMARY: The mAb landscape is rapidly evolving with numerous examples of success and failure. The armamentarium of clinically-available mAbs to protect vulnerable populations is expected to undergo continued growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Viruses , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMeasuring the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 enables assessment of past infection and protective immunity. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces humoral and T cell responses, but these responses vary with disease severity and individual characteristics.METHODSA T cell receptor (TCR) immunosequencing assay was conducted using small-volume blood samples from 302 individuals recovered from COVID-19. Correlations between the magnitude of the T cell response and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers or indicators of disease severity were evaluated. Sensitivity of T cell testing was assessed and compared with serologic testing.RESULTSSARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were significantly correlated with nAb titers and clinical indicators of disease severity, including hospitalization, fever, and difficulty breathing. Despite modest declines in depth and breadth of T cell responses during convalescence, high sensitivity was observed until at least 6 months after infection, with overall sensitivity ~5% greater than serology tests for identifying prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved performance of T cell testing was most apparent in recovered, nonhospitalized individuals sampled > 150 days after initial illness, suggesting greater sensitivity than serology at later time points and in individuals with less severe disease. T cell testing identified SARS-CoV-2 infection in 68% (55 of 81) of samples with undetectable nAb titers (<1:40) and in 37% (13 of 35) of samples classified as negative by 3 antibody assays.CONCLUSIONThese results support TCR-based testing as a scalable, reliable measure of past SARS-CoV-2 infection with clinical value beyond serology.TRIAL REGISTRATIONSpecimens were accrued under trial NCT04338360 accessible at clinicaltrials.gov.FUNDINGThis work was funded by Adaptive Biotechnologies, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NIAID, Fred Hutchinson Joel Meyers Endowment, Fast Grants, and American Society for Transplantation and Cell Therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 342, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784032

ABSTRACT

Three betacoronaviruses have crossed the species barrier and established human-to-human transmission causing significant morbidity and mortality in the past 20 years. The most current and widespread of these is SARS-CoV-2. The identification of CoVs with zoonotic potential in animal reservoirs suggests that additional outbreaks could occur. Monoclonal antibodies targeting conserved neutralizing epitopes on diverse CoVs can form the basis for prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments and enable the design of vaccines aimed at providing pan-CoV protection. We previously identified a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, CV3-25 that binds to the SARS-CoV-2 spike, neutralizes the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant comparably to the ancestral Wuhan Hu-1 strain, cross neutralizes SARS-CoV-1 and binds to recombinant proteins derived from the spike-ectodomains of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. Here, we show that the neutralizing activity of CV3-25 is maintained against the Alpha, Delta, Gamma and Omicron variants of concern as well as a SARS-CoV-like bat coronavirus with zoonotic potential by binding to a conserved linear peptide in the stem-helix region. Negative stain electron microscopy and a 1.74 Å crystal structure of a CV3-25/peptide complex demonstrates that CV3-25 binds to the base of the stem helix at the HR2 boundary to an epitope that is distinct from other stem-helix directed neutralizing mAbs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2148325, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680211

ABSTRACT

Importance: Racial and ethnic diversity among study participants is associated with improved generalizability of clinical trial results and may address inequities in evidence that informs public health strategies. Novel strategies are needed for equitable access and recruitment of diverse clinical trial populations. Objective: To investigate demographic and geographical location data for participants in 2 remote COVID-19 clinical trials with online recruitment and compare with those of a contemporaneous clinic-based COVID-19 study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using data from 3 completed, prospective randomized clinical trials conducted at the same time: 2 remotely conducted studies (the Early Treatment Study and Hydroxychloroquine COVID-19 Postexposure Prophylaxis [PEP] Study) and 1 clinic-based study of convalescent plasma (the Expanded Access to Convalescent Plasma for the Treatment of Patients With COVID-19 study). Data were collected from March to August 2020 with 1 to 28 days of participant follow-up. All studies had clinical sites in Seattle, Washington; the 2 remote trials also had collaborating sites in New York, New York; Syracuse, New York; Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Los Angeles, California. Two remote trials with inclusive social media strategies enrolled 929 participants with recent SARS-CoV-2 exposure (Hydroxychloroquine COVID-19 PEP Trial) and 231 participants with COVID-19 infection (Early Treatment Study); the clinic-based Expanded Access to Convalescent Plasma for the Treatment of Patients With COVID-19 study enrolled 250 participants with recent COVID-19 infection. Data were analyzed from April to August 2021. Interventions: Remote trials used inclusive social media strategies and clinician referral for recruitment and telehealth, courier deliveries, and self-collected nasal swabs for remotely conducted study visits. For the clinic-based study, participants were recruited via clinician referral and attended in-person visits. Main Outcomes and Measures: Google Analytics data were used to measure online participant engagement and recruitment. Participant demographics and geographical location data from remote trials were pooled and compared with those of the clinic-based study. Statistical comparison of demographic data was limited to participants with COVID infections (ie, those in the remotely conducted Early Treatment Study vs those in the clinic-based study) to improve accuracy of comparison given that the Hydroxychloroquine COVID-19 PEP Trial enrolled participants with COVID-19 exposures and thus had different enrollment criteria. Results: A total of 1410 participants were included. Among 1160 participants in remote trials and 250 participants in the clinic-based trial, the mean (range) age of participants was 39 (18-80) years vs 50 (19-79) years and 676 individuals (58.3%) vs 131 individuals (52.4%) reported female sex. The Early Treatment Study with inclusive social media strategies enrolled 231 participants in 41 US states with increased rates of racial, ethnic, and geographic diversity compared with participants in the clinic-based study. Among 228 participants in the remotely conducted Early Treatment Study with race data vs participants in the clinic-based study, 39 individuals (17.1%) vs 1 individual (0.4%) identified as Alaska Native or American Indian, 11 individuals (4.8%) vs 22 individuals (8.8%) identified as Asian, 26 individuals (11.4%) vs 4 individuals (1.6%) identified as Black, 3 individuals (1.3%) vs 1 individual identified as Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 117 individuals (51.3%) vs 214 individuals (85.6%) identified as White, and 32 individuals (14.0%) vs 8 individuals (3.2%) identified as other race (P < .001). Among 230 individuals in the Early Treatment Study vs 236 individuals in the clinic-based trial with ethnicity data, 71 individuals (30.9%) vs 11 individuals (4.7%) identified as Hispanic or Latinx (P<.001). There were 29 individuals in the Early Treatment Study with nonurban residences (ie, rural, small town, or peri-urban; 12.6%) vs 6 of 248 individuals in the clinic-based trial with residence data (2.4%) (P < .001). In remote trial online recruitment, the highest engagement was with advertisements on social media platforms; among 125 147 unique users with age demographics who clicked on online recruitment advertisements, 84 188 individuals (67.3%) engaged via Facebook. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that remote clinical trials with online advertising may be considered as a strategy to improve diversity among clinical trial participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Patient Selection , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapies for B-cell malignancies are immunocompromised and at risk for serious infections. Vaccine immunogenicity is unknown in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of the humoral immunogenicity of 2019-2020 inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) in children and adults immediately prior to (n=7) or 13-57 months after (n=15) CD19-, CD20-, or BCMA-targeted CAR-T-cell therapy, as well as controls (n=8). Individuals post-CAR-T-cell therapy were in remission. We tested for antibodies to 4 vaccine strains at baseline and ≥1 time point after IIV using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition assays. An antibody response was defined as a ≥4-fold titer increase from baseline at the first post-vaccine time point. Baseline A(H1N1) titers in the CAR-T cohorts were significantly lower compared to controls. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 2 (29%) individuals before CAR-T-cell therapy;one individual maintained a response for >3 months post-CAR-T-cell therapy. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 6 (40%) individuals vaccinated after CAR-T-cell therapy. An additional 2 (29%) and 6 (40%) individuals had ≥2-fold increases (at any time) in the pre- and post-CAR-T cohorts, respectively. There were no identified clinical or immunologic predictors of antibody responses. Neither severe hypogammaglobulinemia nor B-cell aplasia precluded antibody responses. These data support consideration for vaccination before and after CAR-T-cell therapy for influenza and other relevant pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, irrespective of hypogammaglobulinemia or B-cell aplasia. Larger studies are needed to determine correlates of vaccine immunogenicity and durability in CAR-T-cell therapy recipients. Key Points Influenza vaccination was immunogenic pre- and post-CAR-T-cell therapy, despite hypogammaglobulinemia and B-cell aplasia. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines can be considered before CAR-T-cell therapy and in individuals with remission after therapy.

8.
Sci Adv ; 7(46): eabj0274, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511407

ABSTRACT

Despite recent studies of immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), little is known about how the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 differs from other respiratory infections. We compare the immune signature from hospitalized SARS-CoV-2­infected patients to patients hospitalized prepandemic with influenza or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Our in-depth profiling indicates that the immune landscape in SARS-CoV-2 patients is largely similar to flu or RSV patients. Unique to patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who had the most critical clinical disease were changes in the regulatory T cell (Treg) compartment. A Treg signature including increased frequency, activation status, and migration markers was correlated COVID-19 severity. These findings are relevant as Tregs are considered for therapy to combat the severe inflammation seen in COVID-19 patients. Likewise, having defined the overlapping immune landscapes in SARS-CoV-2, existing knowledge of flu and RSV infections could be leveraged to identify common treatment strategies.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495513

ABSTRACT

Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapies for B cell malignancies have profound and prolonged immunodeficiencies and are at risk for serious infections, including respiratory virus infections. Vaccination may be important for infection prevention, but there are limited data on vaccine immunogenicity in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of the humoral immunogenicity of commercially available 2019-2020 inactivated influenza vaccines in adults immediately prior to or while in durable remission after CD19-, CD20-, or B cell maturation antigen-targeted CAR-T-cell therapy, as well as controls. We tested for antibodies to all four vaccine strains using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Antibody responses were defined as at least fourfold titer increases from baseline. Seroprotection was defined as a HAI titer ≥40. Enrolled CAR-T-cell recipients were vaccinated 14-29 days prior to (n=5) or 13-57 months following therapy (n=13), and the majority had hypogammaglobulinemia and cellular immunodeficiencies prevaccination. Eight non-immunocompromised adults served as controls. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 2 (40%) individuals before CAR-T-cell therapy and in 4 (31%) individuals vaccinated after CAR-T-cell therapy. An additional 1 (20%) and 6 (46%) individuals had at least twofold increases, respectively. One individual vaccinated prior to CAR-T-cell therapy maintained a response for >3 months following therapy. Across all tested vaccine strains, seroprotection was less frequent in CAR-T-cell recipients than in controls. There was evidence of immunogenicity even among individuals with low immunoglobulin, CD19+ B cell, and CD4+ T-cell counts. These data support consideration for vaccination before and after CAR-T-cell therapy for influenza and other relevant pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, irrespective of hypogammaglobulinemia or B cell aplasia. However, relatively impaired humoral vaccine immunogenicity indicates the need for additional infection-prevention strategies. Larger studies are needed to refine our understanding of potential correlates of vaccine immunogenicity, and durability of immune responses, in CAR-T-cell therapy recipients.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469383

ABSTRACT

The human Betacoronavirus OC43 is a common cause of respiratory viral infections in adults and children. Lung infections with OC43 are associated with mortality, especially in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in protection against many respiratory viral infections, but to date a live viral neutralization assay for OC43 has not been described. We isolated a human monoclonal antibody (OC2) that binds to the spike protein of OC43 and neutralizes the live virus derived from the original isolate of OC43. We used this monoclonal antibody to develop and test the performance of two readily accessible in vitro assays for measuring antibody neutralization, one utilizing cytopathic effect and another utilizing an ELISA of infected cells. We used both methods to measure the neutralizing activity of the OC2 monoclonal antibody and of human plasma. These assays could prove useful for studying humoral responses to OC43 and cross-neutralization with other medically important betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Cell Line , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans
11.
J Clin Invest ; 131(3)2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may protect from reinfection and disease, providing rationale for administration of plasma containing SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) as a treatment for COVID-19. Clinical factors and laboratory assays to streamline plasma donor selection, and the durability of nAb responses, are incompletely understood.METHODSPotential convalescent plasma donors with virologically documented SARS-CoV-2 infection were tested for serum IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 domain and against nucleoprotein (NP), and for nAb.RESULTSAmong 250 consecutive persons, including 27 (11%) requiring hospitalization, who were studied a median of 67 days since symptom onset, 97% were seropositive on 1 or more assays. Sixty percent of donors had nAb titers ≥1:80. Correlates of higher nAb titers included older age (adjusted OR [AOR] 1.03 per year of age, 95% CI 1.00-1.06), male sex (AOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.13-3.82), fever during illness (AOR 2.73, 95% CI 1.25-5.97), and disease severity represented by hospitalization (AOR 6.59, 95% CI 1.32-32.96). Receiver operating characteristic analyses of anti-S1 and anti-NP antibody results yielded cutoffs that corresponded well with nAb titers, with the anti-S1 assay being slightly more predictive. nAb titers declined in 37 of 41 paired specimens collected a median of 98 days (range 77-120) apart (P < 0.001). Seven individuals (2.8%) were persistently seronegative and lacked T cell responses.CONCLUSIONnAb titers correlated with COVID-19 severity, age, and sex. SARS-CoV-2 IgG results can serve as useful surrogates for nAb testing. Functional nAb levels declined, and a small proportion of convalescent individuals lacked adaptive immune responses.FUNDINGThe project was supported by the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research with support from the NIAID under contract number 75N91019D00024, and was supported by the Fred Hutchinson Joel Meyers Endowment, Fast-Grants, a New Investigator award from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, and NIH contracts 75N93019C0063, 75N91019D00024, and HHSN272201800013C, and NIH grants T32-AI118690, T32-AI007044, K08-AI119142, and K23-AI140918.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4290, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096333

ABSTRACT

Rapid generation of diagnostics is paramount to understand epidemiology and to control the spread of emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Computational methods to predict serodiagnostic epitopes that are specific for the pathogen could help accelerate the development of new diagnostics. A systematic survey of 27 SARS-CoV-2 proteins was conducted to assess whether existing B-cell epitope prediction methods, combined with comprehensive mining of sequence databases and structural data, could predict whether a particular protein would be suitable for serodiagnosis. Nine of the predictions were validated with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins in the ELISA format using plasma and sera from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a further 11 predictions were compared to the recent literature. Results appeared to be in agreement with 12 of the predictions, in disagreement with 3, while a further 5 were deemed inconclusive. We showed that two of our top five candidates, the N-terminal fragment of the nucleoprotein and the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, have the highest sensitivity and specificity and signal-to-noise ratio for detecting COVID-19 sera/plasma by ELISA. Mixing the two antigens together for coating ELISA plates led to a sensitivity of 94% (N = 80 samples from persons with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection), and a specificity of 97.2% (N = 106 control samples).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
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