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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e066655, 2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study, The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Health in Early and Adult Life (SHINE), was to build on the landmark Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), a longitudinal birth cohort initiated in 1991, by conducting a health-focused follow-up of the now adult participants. This effort has produced an invaluable resource for the pursuit of life course research examining links between early life risk and resilience factors and adulthood health and disease risk. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 927 NICHD SECCYD participants available for recruitment in the current study, 705 (76.1%) participated in the study. Participants were between 26 and 31 years and living in diverse geographic locations throughout the USA. FINDINGS TO DATE: In descriptive analyses, the sample exhibited risk on health status indicators, especially related to obesity, hypertension and diabetes. Of particular concern, the prevalence of hypertension (29.4%) and diabetes (25.8%) exceeded national estimates in similar-age individuals. Health behaviour indicators generally tracked with the parameters of poor health status, showing a pattern of poor diet, low activity and disrupted sleep. The juxtaposition of the sample's relatively young age (mean=28.6 years) and high educational status (55.6% college educated or greater) with its poor health status is noteworthy, suggesting a dissociation between health and factors that are typically health protective. This is consistent with observed population health trends, which show a worsening of cardiometabolic health status in younger generations of Americans. FUTURE PLANS: The current study, SHINE, lays the groundwork for future analyses in which the uniquely robust measures collected as a part of the original NICHD SECCYD will be leveraged to pinpoint specific early life risk and resilience factors as well as the correlates and potential mechanisms accounting for variability in health and disease risk indicators in young adulthood.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , Adult , Child , Humans , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult , Child Care , Follow-Up Studies , Child Development
2.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(1): 36-44, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232355

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact workforces in the United States, the Acupuncture and Telehealth Survey was released to assess the acupuncture profession's use of telehealth and workforce response to a changing regulatory landscape. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of licensed acupuncturists in the United States was conducted in May 2020 for 4 weeks. Novel online recruitment strategies were successfully implemented including social media pages, digital media marketing, and webinar presentations. Statistical analyses were used to ascertain varying impacts on acupuncturists with telehealth training, and the use of online health care platforms, stratified by age, and history of licensure. Results: One thousand forty-five respondents from 46 states completed the survey. The majority of respondents noted a significant reduction in working hours regardless of telehealth training history (mean -18.7 h/week, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [-19.5 to -18.0]); however, acupuncturists managing patients online reported a lesser magnitude of impact (mean -17.3, p = 0.004). Respondents noted stress, immune support, and pain as the most common conditions managed through telehealth. Acupuncturists using telehealth primarily educated patients on nutrition- or herbal-based therapies and acupressure techniques, similar to acupuncturists managing suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. Although only 21% of acupuncturists reported receiving telehealth training, 38% were providing telehealth, and 13% were considering it in the future with concerns for quality patient care. Discussion: Acupuncturists' working hours were significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic although many pivoted to a variety of online health care techniques and profession-specific modalities for continued patient care. This effect could be minimized by the use of telehealth platforms, necessitating adequate training on telehealth in the acupuncture profession.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
3.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(3): 1199-1211, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546285

ABSTRACT

Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States have been exacerbated by pre-existing inequities in resources and opportunities, leaving the most vulnerable to face a multitude of hardships. The goal of the current study was to characterise COVID-19-related stressful life events in specific life domains and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals who are more likely to experience such events. Participants (n = 372, 57% female) in a follow-up study of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development completed the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (June-August 2020) to assess COVID-19-related stressors. Sociodemographic factors (gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and wealth) were examined simultaneously as predictors of the number of stressful life events in separate categories of work/finances, home life, social activity, health and healthcare, adjusted for covariates (household size, community COVID-19 transmission risk). In negative binomial regression analyses, being female (vs. male) predicted a 31%, 64%, 13% and 94% increase in the number of stressful life events in domains of work/finances, home life, social activity and healthcare, respectively, whereas each one standard deviation increase in wealth predicted a 17%, 16% and 21% reduction in the number of stressful life events in domains of work/finances, COVID-19 infection and healthcare, respectively. Findings highlight the pronounced and far-reaching impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on women as well as the unique role wealth may play in lessening such impacts. This new knowledge may be leveraged to develop intervention and policy-related strategies to remediate impacts of COVID-19-related stressors on those most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 83, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a crisis unprecedented in its size and scope. Yet studies of resilience suggest most individuals will successfully negotiate this challenge and some may even experience growth and positive change. Some evidence suggests that the capacity to enact positive change in the face of adversity may be shaped by early life experiences. METHODS: In a subset of 374 participants (57% female, mean age = 29 years) in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), a longitudinal, birth cohort, prospective models were tested to determine whether early life adversities in family and neighborhood contexts predict positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Childhood family and neighborhood contexts were assessed using a combination of self-report questionnaires and US Census data. Adulthood positive change events (e.g., becoming more appreciative of things usually taken for granted) were assessed using the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII). RESULTS: In regression analyses, neighborhood disadvantage in childhood, measured both by objective and subjective assessments, predicted a higher number of positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .15, p = .006, respectively). Examination of the positive change event subscales showed neighborhood disadvantage in childhood predicted increases in events related to 'perspective taking and charitable giving' (ß = .20, p = .022 and ß = .17, p = .002, respectively) and improved 'social relationships' (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .13, p = .020, respectively), but not to positive 'health behaviors' (ps > .05). All associations were independent of sociodemographic factors and childhood family dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage in childhood may shape prosocial responses to stress in adulthood, potentially through early life adaptions to stress that are protective when facing adversity. There are several notable implications of the study findings. Although adversity in early life has clear negative impacts, it is possible that adversity experiences may also provide opportunities to develop adaptive strategies that foster resilience and growth when facing stress. Intervention efforts should consider leveraging such stress-adapted strengths to reduce the many negative impacts of early life adversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Behav Med ; 28(6): 813-819, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Executive functions (EF) support engagement in goal-directed behaviors, including several health behaviors. Stressful and cognitively demanding events can disrupt EFs and interfere with health behavior, possibly to a greater extent in those with preexisting EF deficits. This study examined the association between preexisting EF deficits and subsequent negative changes in eating patterns, physical activity, sedentariness, and alcohol/substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Participants were 374 young adults in a follow-up study of the longitudinal, multisite Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Preexisting EF deficits were assessed with the Barkley Deficits in Executive Function Scales-Short Form, and personally impactful negative changes in four health behaviors (physical activity, unhealthy eating, sedentary time, alcohol/substance use) during the COVID-19 pandemic were subsequently assessed with the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory. RESULTS: In ordered logistic regression models, higher preexisting total EF deficits were associated with greater negative impactful changes in physical activity and unhealthy eating, independent of sociodemographic variables, obesity, and (as relevant) accelerometer-based physical activity and pre-COVID-19 diet quality. Socioeconomic status moderated the association between total EF deficits and impactful change in alcohol/substance use, with EF deficits linked to greater impactful change in alcohol/substance use only in higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSION: Individuals with preexisting EF deficits appear more vulnerable to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on several key health behaviors. As the pandemic unfolds, strategies may be needed to identify those with EF deficits (e.g., screening tools) and provide them with tailored support for chronic disease risk reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Executive Function , Adolescent , Follow-Up Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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