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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION. Emerging evidence associates COVID-19 to an increased risk of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of APE in patients admitted to internal medicine department wards for non-critical COVID-19 who presented clinical deterioration, and to investigate the association of clinical and biochemical variables with a confirmed diagnosis of APE in these subjects. METHODS. All consecutive patients admitted to the internal medicine department of a general hospital with a diagnosis of non-critical COVID-19, who performed a Computer Tomography Pulmonary Angiography(CTPA) for respiratory deterioration in April 2020, were included in this retrospective cohort study. RESULTS. Study populations: 41 subjects, median(IRQ) age: 71.7(63-76) years, CPTA confirmed APE=8(19.51%,CI95%:8.82%-34.87%). Among patients with and without APE, no significant differences were found with regards symptoms, comorbidities, treatment, Wells score and outcomes. The optimal cut-off value of D-dimer for predicting APE was 2454 ng/mL, sensitivity(CI95%):63(24-91), specificity:73(54-87), Positive Predictive Value:36(13-65), Negative Predictive Value: 89(71-98) and AUC:0.62(0.38-0.85). The standard and age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs, and the Wells score > 2 did not associate with confirmed APE, albeit a cut-off value of D-dimer=2454 ng/mL showed an RR:3.21;CI95%:0.92-13.97;p=0.073. CONCLUSION. Among patients presenting pulmonary deterioration after admission to internal medicine wards for non-critical COVID-19, the prevalence of APE was high. The traditional diagnostic tools to identify high APE pre-test probability patients does not seem to be clinically useful. These results support the use of a low threshold of suspicion for performing CTPA to exclude or confirm APE as the most appropriate diagnostic approach in this clinical setting.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307869

ABSTRACT

Background: The ability to identify the positive subjects is crucial for public health practice to reduce transmission and supporting contact tracing and isolation. The reliability of the criteria of the test-based criteria as the required condition for the reintroduction of the asymptomatic and positive patients of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the community was evaluated assessing the time span from positive to negative for RNA detection by Real Time – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Methods. We used information concerning negative conversion time and the respective times. Cumulative probabilities of negative conversion time during the follow-up were evaluated by Crude Cumulative Incidences (CCIs). Non-parametric estimates of CCIs and respective 95% C.I.s were obtained.Results. We report the results for 52,186 individuals. 33486 subjects resulted negative or potentially negative with a CCI of 75.2% at 70 days from the first swab (95% CI: 74.8% to 75.7%). 11,000 subjects deceased before 14/05/2020 without diagnosis of negative status (CCI 21.9%;95% CI: 21.5% to 22.3%), at 56 days from the first swab (maximum observed time to death).Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 positivity is a condition that frequently lasts more than 30 days. More solid studies are required to determinate the significance of a prolonged state of positivity and the consequences on the policies of dismission of quarantine and isolation.

3.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 225, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy only recently, for the 2020-21 season, has the flu vaccination been extended to all children. A quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (qLAIV) was administered to children aged 2-17 years for the first time. We registered the number and severity of adverse reactions to (Fluenz Tetra™) and the factors influencing them, evaluated uniformity of access to care and assessed the degree of satisfaction with the vaccination of both parents and health care providers, in order to improve the 2021-22 vaccination program. METHODS: On vaccination day, a questionnaire was given out to collect information about the children and their parents. Between 1 and 3 months later, the parents were contacted to record any adverse reactions following (Fluenz Tetra™) and rate the degree of satisfaction. RESULTS: We received data of 3226 children from 2152 families. Adverse events were reported in 24.8% of children: 80.6% mild, 18.1% moderate and 1.3% significant. The most common were rhinitis (52.5%) and fever (24.4%). Statistical analysis performed with a multiple regression model, showed that children aged 2-5 years have an increased risk of adverse events compared to both 6-10 years old (aRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.9, p < 0. 001) and 11-17 years old (aRR 1.5, 95% CI 1-2.2, p = 0.051). Most families chose to vaccinate their children to protect them and because they were concerned about Covid19. The main channel through which parents became aware of a new flu vaccination was word-of-mouth (39.8%), which occurred mostly among parents of the same school group, followed by information from the child's doctor (30.6%), the Internet (26.9%), personal research (15%), newspapers (4%), telecommunications (7.5%) and other (2.6%). Most parents (83.3%) were very satisfied and intend to vaccinate their children with qLAIV again (83.8%). The majority of operators (93%) considered the experience as excellent and are willing to repeat it (94.6%). CONCLUSION: (Fluenz Tetra™) proved to be easy to administer and the degree of satisfaction was high among both health workers and parents. Considering its substantial safety profile especially in school-age children and adolescents, all these aspects make the nasal qLAIV optimal for widespread immunization. Schools offer the best setting to reach more families and physicians should be actively involved.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage
4.
Intern Med J ; 51(8): 1236-1242, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests an association between COVID-19 and acute pulmonary embolism (APE). AIMS: To assess the prevalence of APE in patients hospitalised for non-critical COVID-19 who presented clinical deterioration, and to investigate the association of clinical and biochemical variables with a confirmed diagnosis of APE in these subjects. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted to the internal medicine department of a general hospital with a diagnosis of non-critical COVID-19, who performed a computer tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for respiratory deterioration in April 2020, were included in this retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: Study populations: 41 subjects, median (interquartile range) age: 71.7 (63-76) years, CPTA confirmed APE = 8 (19.51%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.82-34.87%). Among patients with and without APE, no significant differences were found with regards symptoms, comorbidities, treatment, Wells score and outcomes. The optimal cut-off value of d-dimer for predicting APE was 2454 ng/mL, sensitivity (95% CI): 63 (24-91), specificity: 73 (54-87), positive predictive value: 36 (13-65), negative predictive value: 89 (71-98) and AUC: 0.62 (0.38-0.85). The standard and age-adjusted d-dimer cut-offs, and the Wells score ≥2 did not associate with confirmed APE, albeit a cut-off value of d-dimer = 2454 ng/mL showed an relative risk: 3.21; 95% CI: 0.92-13.97; P = 0.073. Heparin at anticoagulant doses was used in 70.73% of patients before performing CTPA. CONCLUSION: Among patients presenting pulmonary deterioration after hospitalisation for non-critical COVID-19, the prevalence of APE is high. Traditional diagnostic tools to identify high APE pre-test probability patients do not seem to be clinically useful. These results support the use of a high index of suspicion for performing CTPA to exclude or confirm APE as the most appropriate diagnostic approach in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitalization , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 39: 101067, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Italian Lombardy region has been the epicenter of COVID-19 since February 2020. This study analyses the epidemiology of pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) onset during the first two pandemic waves and three previous years. METHODS: All the 13 pediatric diabetes centers in Lombardy prospectively evaluated charts of children at T1D onset (0-17 years), during year 2020. After calculating the annual incidence, the data were compared with those of the 3 previous years, using generalized linear models, adjusted for age and sex. Monthly T1D new onsets and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were investigated yearly from 2017 to 2020. Data were extracted from outpatients charts of the pediatric diabetes centers and from the database of the national institute of statistics. FINDINGS: The estimated incidence proportion of T1D was 16/100·000 in 2020, compared to 14, 11 and 12 in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. When adjusting for age and gender, the incidence was significantly lower in 2018 and 2017 compared to 2020 (adjusted incidence ratio: 0.73 and 0.77 respectively, with 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.84, and 0.67 to 0.83; p = 0·002 and p = 0·01), but no difference was found between the years 2020 and 2019. A reduction trend in the percentage of T1D diagnosis during the first wave (March-April) over the total year diagnoses was observed compared to previous years (11·7% in 2020, 17·7% in 2019, 14·1% in 2018 and 14·4% 2017). No difference was observed during the second wave (October-December) (32·8% in 2020, 33·8% in 2019, 34% in 2018, 30·7% in 2017). The proportion of DKA over the total T1D diagnoses during the second wave had higher trend than the first one (41·7% vs 33·3%), while severe DKA over the total DKA appeared higher during the first wave (60% vs 37·1%). INTERPRETATION: The study suggests an increase in the incidence of pediatric T1D in Lombardy throughout the past five years. Pandemic waves may have affected the clinical presentation at onset. FUNDING: None.

6.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2221-2229, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262573

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is an infectious disease which was declared a pandemic and hit countries worldwide from the beginning of the year 2020. Despite the emergency vigilance plans, health systems in all countries experienced a different ratio of lethality, amount of admissions to intensive care units and quarantine management of positive patients. The aim of this study is to investigate whether some epidemiological estimates could have been useful in understanding the capacity of the Italian Regional Health Services to manage the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: We have compared data between two different Italian regions in the Northern part of Italy (Lombardy and Veneto) and the national data to determine whether different health strategies might be significant in explaining dissimilar patterns of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy. Data have been extracted from a public database and were available only in an aggregated form. RESULTS: The regions in question displayed two different health policies to face the COVID-19 epidemic: while Veneto's health service was largely territorially oriented, Lombardy's strategy was more hospital-centered. DISCUSSION: The key to facing epidemics like this one consists in identifying solutions outside of hospitals. This however requires there be well-trained general practitioners and enough healthcare personnel working outside hospitals.

8.
Intern Med J ; 51(8): 1236-1242, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests an association between COVID-19 and acute pulmonary embolism (APE). AIMS: To assess the prevalence of APE in patients hospitalised for non-critical COVID-19 who presented clinical deterioration, and to investigate the association of clinical and biochemical variables with a confirmed diagnosis of APE in these subjects. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted to the internal medicine department of a general hospital with a diagnosis of non-critical COVID-19, who performed a computer tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for respiratory deterioration in April 2020, were included in this retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: Study populations: 41 subjects, median (interquartile range) age: 71.7 (63-76) years, CPTA confirmed APE = 8 (19.51%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.82-34.87%). Among patients with and without APE, no significant differences were found with regards symptoms, comorbidities, treatment, Wells score and outcomes. The optimal cut-off value of d-dimer for predicting APE was 2454 ng/mL, sensitivity (95% CI): 63 (24-91), specificity: 73 (54-87), positive predictive value: 36 (13-65), negative predictive value: 89 (71-98) and AUC: 0.62 (0.38-0.85). The standard and age-adjusted d-dimer cut-offs, and the Wells score ≥2 did not associate with confirmed APE, albeit a cut-off value of d-dimer = 2454 ng/mL showed an relative risk: 3.21; 95% CI: 0.92-13.97; P = 0.073. Heparin at anticoagulant doses was used in 70.73% of patients before performing CTPA. CONCLUSION: Among patients presenting pulmonary deterioration after hospitalisation for non-critical COVID-19, the prevalence of APE is high. Traditional diagnostic tools to identify high APE pre-test probability patients do not seem to be clinically useful. These results support the use of a high index of suspicion for performing CTPA to exclude or confirm APE as the most appropriate diagnostic approach in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitalization , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246513, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099923

ABSTRACT

Castiglione D'Adda is one of the municipalities more precociously and severely affected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in Lombardy. With our study we aimed to understand the diffusion of the infection by mass serological screening. We searched for SARS-CoV-2 IgGs in the entire population on a voluntary basis using lateral flow immunochromatographic tests (RICT) on capillary blood (rapid tests). We then performed chemioluminescent serological assays (CLIA) and naso-pharyngeal swabs (NPS) in a randomized representative sample and in each subject with a positive rapid test. Factors associated with RICT IgG positivity were assessed by uni- and multivariate logistic regression models. Out of the 4143 participants, 918 (22·2%) showed RICT IgG positivity. In multivariable analysis, IgG positivity increases with age, with a significant non-linear effect (p = 0·0404). We found 22 positive NPSs out of the 1330 performed. Albeit relevant, the IgG prevalence is lower than expected and suggests that a large part of the population remains susceptible to the infection. The observed differences in prevalence might reflect a different infection susceptibility by age group. A limited persistence of active infections could be found after several weeks after the epidemic peak in the area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(6): 1155-1160, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012223

ABSTRACT

The tests currently used for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 include specimens taken from the upper and lower respiratory tract. Although recommendations from the World Health Organization prioritise the usage of a nasopharyngeal swab (NS), nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) are thought to be superior in identifying SARS-CoV-2 in children. To our knowledge, however, no paediatric study has been published on the subject. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performances of NS referred to NPA for SARS-CoV-2 in children. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the NS referred to the NPA of the whole sample and considered both age and collection period as covariates in different analyses. We collected 300 paired samples. The NS had a specificity of 97.7% and a sensitivity of 58.1%. We found similar results for the group of subjects ≥ 6 years old, while for subjects < 6 years old, the sensitivity was 66.7% and the specificity 97.8%. Considering period as a covariate, the sensitivity and specificity for patients hospitalised in March (31 patients, 52 records) were 70.0% and 97.6%, while for patients involved in the follow-up (16 patients, 57 records), they were 57.2% and 89.7%. The NS has a low sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in children when referred to the NPA, whereas its specificity is high. Our results suggest that in children under 6 years of age, NSs should be preferred whenever possible. Though statistically not significant, the sensitivity of the NS rises when performed before the NPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Child , Humans
13.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020017, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761265

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to assess the association among species of bacteria and to identify the presence of clusters of patients in sub intensive care unit with different profiles of infection, and to study the relationship between such profiles and patient demographics (gender, age), kind of investigations and  material used to detect the infection. The findings need to analyse a bigger amount of data in the same setting to make evident that it is constant the infection only with Escherichia coli and Staphylocossus epidemidis and a third case in which more bacteria are inlvolved.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 31-34, 2020 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-320795

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019 in China and was declared a pandemic on 11.03.2020 by WHO. Italy is one of the most afflicted Country by this epidemic with 136,110 confirmed cases and 16,654 deaths on 9.4.2020 (at the same date, the Ministry of Health was reporting 143,626 cases).  During these few months the National Health Service have made a great effort to cope with the increasing request of intensive care beds and all the elective activities in hospital have been suspended. Data from the different Italian regions shows different patterns of positive and dead for this syndrome. Moreover, striking differences of the observed lethality of the infections among different areas were immediately evident from the epidemic reports. It will be of critical relevance to understand the expected evolution of the first lock-down phase, driving the exhaustion of the Covid-19 outbreak.(www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
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