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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 111, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by severe radiographic changes and clinicopathological findings. However, in the vast majority of cases, the cause remains unknown. CASE DESCRIPTION: In the present study, we reported the clinical case of a 3 years old female Bull Terrier presented in October 2020 to the Advanced Diagnostic Imaging Department of the Turin Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a progressive pulmonary illness characterized by dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and a diffuse and severe pulmonary interstitial pattern at imaging investigations. Considering the clinical findings, the dog was included in a serological survey for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in companion animals, showing positive results. Due to the further clinical worsening, the owners opted for euthanasia. At necroscopy, dog showed severe and chronic bronchopneumonia compatible with a Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and with serological features linked to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison of these lesions with those reported in humans affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) supports the hypothesis that these findings may be attributable to the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dog with breed predisposition to Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (CIPF), although direct evidence of SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigenic approaches remained unsolved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/veterinary , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Dogs , Female , Hospitals, Animal , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-326281

ABSTRACT

Background: The omicron variant has spread globally at unprecedented speed due to a combination of epidemiological and virological factors that still need to be fully unraveled. Although boosting of immunity in vaccinated populations has proven to increase the antibody recognition for this variant, we still ignore the impact that this intervention has on protection from infection and disease. Methods: Relying on a live virus neutralization assay and a commercial chemiluminescence immunoassay targeting antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the parental Spike protein, we tested the efficacy of homologous and heterologous booster vaccinations in inducing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 parental, delta, beta and omicron variants by history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and age of population. Booster vaccination was performed with the BNT126b2 vaccine, while individuals who underwent heterologous booster vaccination were primed with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine. Moreover, we studied the impact that prior immunity has on vaccination, in mildly infected individuals who received 2-3 doses of the BNT1262b vaccine at different times after infection. Children previously infected with delta were evaluated 3·5 months after infection. To translate neutralization data into estimates of protection, we relied on published predictive models and inferred variant-specific thresholds of protection for both assays and assessed the accuracy of the commercial assay at identifying highly protected individuals. Findings: We confirm that boosting significantly restores the ability of antibodies to recognize omicron and other variants, and that the homologous protocol with the BNT126b2 vaccine achieves higher and more broadly reactive neutralizing antibody titers, than those observed among individuals who crossed-over vaccines. On the other hand, mild prior infection with the parental virus and subsequent homologous vaccination with BNT126b2 induces high antibody levels, but with moderate breadth of response, while children aged 5-11 show negligible neutralizing antibodies against the omicron variant few months from infection. Neutralizing and binding antibodies correlate across all variants and allow the identification of variant-specific anti-RBD thresholds for 90% protection efficacy. Interpretation: Boosting with the BNT126b2 vaccine is an immediate and effective measure to increase the protection against omicron, in naïve, as well as in previously infected individuals. Identification through serological commercial assays of thresholds of protection against the omicron and delta variants is a crucial step towards large-scale serosurveys to finely assess infection risk both at population and individual level.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308827

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses and with the school reopening, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children in order to define possible immunization strategies and reconsider pandemic control measures. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab) and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 42 COVID-19-infected children 7 days after symptoms onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance, and lower viral load associated to a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4-CD40L+ T-cells and Spike specific B-cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, with PRNT+ patients showing higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work shed lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children which may drive future vaccination trials endpoints and quarantine measures policies.Funding: This work was made possible by support from Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital ricerca corrente 2020 to NC and ricerca corrente 2019 to PP, by PENTA and by Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo, Progetti di Ricerca Covid-19 (ADR participant).Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: Local ethical committee approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all participants or legal guardians.

4.
Res Vet Sci ; 143: 81-87, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586571

ABSTRACT

Since the initial emergence in December 2019, the novel Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in over 200 countries, representing an unprecedented challenge related to disease control worldwide. In this context, cases of human to animal transmission have been reported, raising concern about the potential role of companion animals in the pandemic and stressing the need for reliable animal testing. In the study, a detailed epitope mapping of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, using both human and pet sera, allowed the identification of the most antigenic region in the C-terminus domain of the protein, which was used to develop an experimental double antigen-based ELISA. A panel of pre-pandemic sera and sera of animals immunized against (or naturally infected with) related coronaviruses was used to assess assay specificity at 99.5%. Positive sera belonging to animals housed with COVID-19 patients were confirmed with the experimental double-antigen ELISA using Plaque Reduction Neutralization test (PRNT) test as gold standard. The availability of a serological assay that targets a highly specific viral antigen represents a valuable tool for multispecies monitoring of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in susceptible animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Dog Diseases , Epitope Mapping , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Epitope Mapping/veterinary , Humans , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(3): 456-463, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: mRNA vaccines, including Comirnaty (BNT162b2 mRNA, BioNTech-Pfizer), elicit high IgG and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses after the second dose, but the progressive decrease in serum antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following vaccination have raised questions concerning long-term immunity, decreased antibody levels being associated with breakthrough infections after vaccination, prompting the consideration of booster doses. METHODS: A total number of 189 Padua University-Hospital healthcare workers (HCW) who had received a second vaccine dose were asked to collect serum samples for determining Ab at 12 (t12) and 28 (t28) days, and 6 months (t6m) after their first Comirnaty/BNT162b2 inoculation. Ab titers were measured with plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and three chemiluminescent immunoassays, targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD), the trimeric Spike protein (trimeric-S), and surrogate viral neutralization tests (sVNT). RESULTS: The median percentages (interquartile range) for decrease in antibodies values 6 months after the first dose were 86.8% (67.1-92.8%) for S-RBD IgG, 82% (58.6-89.3%) for trimeric-S, 70.4% (34.5-86.4%) for VNT-Nab, 75% (50-87.5%) for PRNT50 and 75% (50-93.7%) for PRNT90. At 6 months, neither PRNT titers nor VNT-Nab and S-RBD IgG bAb levels correlated with age (p=0.078) or gender (p=0.938), while they were correlated with previous infection (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After 6 months, a method-independent reduction of around 90% in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was detected, while no significant differences were found between values of males and females aged between 24 and 65 years without compromised health status. Further efforts to improve analytical harmonization and standardization are needed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 523: 446-453, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating neutralizing antibody (NAb) after BNT162b2 vaccine are scarce. We therefore compared NAb using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) in vaccinated subjects, with those from five chemiluminescent (CLIA) assays, two targeting ACE and S-RBD interaction. METHODS: Sera from 174 completely Comirnaty/BNT162b2 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW) were evaluated at t12 and t28. NAb titers at low (PRNT50) or high (PRNT90) stringency were compared with: Liaison SARS-CoV-2 Trimeric-S IgG, Elecsys S-RBD Ab, Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG and SARS-CoV-2 Nab; iFlash 2019-nCoV NAb. RESULTS: Neither PRNT50 nor PRNT90 correlated with age (range, 24-65 years); no significant differences were found for gender. PRNT50 and PRNT90 seropositive titers (≥1:20) were 43 (24.7%) and 15 (8.6%) at t12 and 167 (95.9%) and 149 (85.6%) at t28. CLIA results at t28 were uncorrelated with age, apart from Elecsys S-RBD Ab (r = -0.164, p = 0.046). Gender differences were found for Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG (p = 0.037) and Maglumi NAb (p = 0.046). Considering PRNT50 at thresholds of 1:20 (or 1:40) and 1:160 (or 1:320), corresponding to different immune protective levels, CLIA cut-offs have been identified. CONCLUSIONS: Comirnaty/BNT162b2 elicits strong NAb production, especially 28 days after first inoculum. Differences in correlation between Nab titers and circulating antibodies measured by 5 immunoassays have been found, being stronger the correlation for Maglumi Nab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Kinetics , Luminescent Measurements , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6610, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521737

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 typically manifests as a respiratory illness, but several clinical reports have described gastrointestinal symptoms. This is particularly true in children in whom gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent and viral shedding outlasts viral clearance from the respiratory system. These observations raise the question of whether the virus can replicate within the stomach. Here we generate gastric organoids from fetal, pediatric, and adult biopsies as in vitro models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To facilitate infection, we induce reverse polarity in the gastric organoids. We find that the pediatric and late fetal gastric organoids are susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, while viral replication is significantly lower in undifferentiated organoids of early fetal and adult origin. We demonstrate that adult gastric organoids are more susceptible to infection following differentiation. We perform transcriptomic analysis to reveal a moderate innate antiviral response and a lack of differentially expressed genes belonging to the interferon family. Collectively, we show that the virus can efficiently infect the gastric epithelium, suggesting that the stomach might have an active role in fecal-oral SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stomach/virology , Virus Replication/physiology , Aborted Fetus , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Infant , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Middle Aged , Organoids/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stomach/pathology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477826

ABSTRACT

Background: The immune response plays a pivotal role in dictating the clinical outcome in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected adults, but it is still poorly investigated in the pediatric population. Methods: Of 209 enrolled subjects, 155 patients were confirmed by PCR and/or serology as having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Blood samples were obtained at a median of 2.8 (interquartile, 2.1-3.7) and 6.1 (5.3-7.2) months after baseline (symptom onset and/or first positive virus detection). The immune profiles of activation, senescence, exhaustion, and regulatory cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were detected by a plaque reduction neutralization test. In available nasopharyngeal swabs at baseline, SARS-CoV-2 levels were quantified by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). Results: Overall, COVID-19 patients had higher levels of immune activation, exhaustion, and regulatory cells compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Within the COVID-19 group, activated and senescent cells were higher in adults than in children and inversely correlated with the nAbs levels. Conversely, Tregs and Bregs regulatory cells were higher in COVID-19 children compared to adults and positively correlated with nAbs. Higher immune activation still persisted in adults after 6 months of infection, while children maintained higher levels of regulatory cells. SARS-CoV-2 levels did not differ among age classes. Conclusions: Adults displayed higher immune activation and lower production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs than children. The different immune response was not related to different viral load. The higher expression of regulatory cells in children may contribute to reduce the immune activation, thus leading to a greater specific response against the virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/immunology
9.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367921

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in humans from a yet unidentified animal reservoir and the capacity of the virus to naturally infect pets, farmed animals and potentially wild animals has highlighted the need for serological surveillance tools. In this study, the luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS), employing the spike (S) and nucleocapsid proteins (N) of SARS-CoV-2, was used to examine the suitability of the assay for antibody detection in different animal species. Sera from SARS-CoV-2 naturally-infected mink (n = 77), SARS-CoV-2 experimentally-infected ferrets, fruit bats and hamsters and a rabbit vaccinated with a purified spike protein were examined for antibodies using the SARS-CoV-2 N and/or S proteins. From comparison with the known neutralization status of the serum samples, statistical analyses including calculation of the Spearman rank-order-correlation coefficient and Cohen's kappa agreement were used to interpret the antibody results and diagnostic performance. The LIPS immunoassay robustly detected the presence of viral antibodies in naturally infected SARS-CoV-2 mink, experimentally infected ferrets, fruit bats and hamsters as well as in an immunized rabbit. For the SARS-CoV-2-LIPS-S assay, there was a good level of discrimination between the positive and negative samples for each of the five species tested with 100% agreement with the virus neutralization results. In contrast, the SARS-CoV-2-LIPS-N assay did not consistently differentiate between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative sera. This study demonstrates the suitability of the SARS-CoV-2-LIPS-S assay for the sero-surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a range of animal species.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/veterinary , Mink/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Chiroptera/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Ferrets/immunology , Immunoprecipitation , Mesocricetus/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Rabbits/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(7): 685-707, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326830

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease affecting many people and able to be transmitted through direct and perhaps indirect contact. Direct contact transmission, mediated by aerosols or droplets, is widely demonstrated, whereas indirect transmission is only supported by collateral evidence such as virus persistence on inanimate surfaces and data from other similar viruses. The present systematic review aims to estimate SARS-CoV-2 prevalence on inanimate surfaces, identifying risk levels according to surface characteristics. Data were obtained from studies in published papers collected from two databases (PubMed and Embase) with the last search on 1 September 2020. Included studies had to be papers in English, had to deal with coronavirus and had to consider inanimate surfaces in real settings. Studies were coded according to our assessment of the risk that the investigated surfaces could be contaminated by SARS-CoV-2. A meta-analysis and a metaregression were carried out to quantify virus RNA prevalence and to identify important factors driving differences among studies. Thirty-nine out of forty retrieved paper reported studies carried out in healthcare settings on the prevalence of virus RNA, five studies carry out also analyses through cell culture and six tested the viability of isolated viruses. Overall prevalences of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on high-, medium- and low-risk surfaces were 0.22 (CI95 [0.152-0.296]), 0.04 (CI95 [0.007-0.090]), and 0.00 (CI95 [0.00-0.019]), respectively. The duration surfaces were exposed to virus sources (patients) was the main factor explaining differences in prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Equipment Contamination , Fomites/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , Microbial Viability , Prevalence
11.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may persist over time; however, knowledge regarding pediatric subjects is limited. METHODS: A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted on 57 family clusters of coronavirus disease 2019, including children of neonatal and pediatric age attending the University Hospital of Padua (Italy). For each patient, blood samples were collected for both the quantification of nAbs through a plaque reduction neutralizing test and the detection of antinucleocapsid-spike protein immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin M. RESULTS: We analyzed 283 blood samples collected from 152 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases (82 parents and 70 children or older siblings of median age of 8 years, interquartile range: 4-13), presenting asymptomatic or with mildly symptomatic disease. Despite the decrease of immunoglobulin G over time, nAbs were found to persist up to 7 to 8 months in children, whereas adults recorded a modest declining trend. Interestingly, children aged <6 years, and, in particular, those aged <3 years, developed higher long-lasting levels of nAbs compared with older siblings and/or adults. CONCLUSIONS: Mild and asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in family clusters elicited higher nAbs among children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Data Collection , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
12.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256417

ABSTRACT

Despite the reported increase in SARS-CoV-2-infected pets, the description of the clinical features from natural infection and the medical follow up in symptomatic pets is still not sufficiently documented. This study reports the case of an indoor cat that displayed respiratory signs and a gastrointestinal syndrome, following the COVID-19 diagnosis of his owners. Thoracic radiographies were suggestive of bronchial pneumonia, while blood tests were indicative of a mild inflammatory process. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs tested positive through RT-qPCR assays targeting SARS-CoV-2 genes 14 days after his owners tested positive for the virus. Nasal swabs persisted to be RT-qPCR positive after 31 days. Serology confirmed the presence of antibodies through ELISA, electrochemiluminescence analysis and plaque reduction neutralization test, recording a high antibody titre after 31 days. The cat improved after medical treatment and clinically recovered. This study suggests that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 could lead to a natural infection with bronchial pneumonia in cats along with a possible prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper airways, albeit at a low level. The cat developed neutralizing antibodies, reaching a high titre after 31 days. Further descriptions of SARS-CoV-2 naturally infected pets, their medical management and diagnostic findings would be useful to enhance knowledge about COVID-19 in susceptible animals.

13.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(8): 1444-1452, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 serology presents an important role in several aspects of COVID-19 pandemic. Immunoassays performances have to be accurately evaluated and correlated with neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the analytical and clinical performances of a SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG assay, automated on a high throughput platform, and the correlation of the antibodies (Ab) levels with the plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT50) Ab titers. METHODS: A series of 546 samples were evaluated by SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG assay (Snibe diagnostics), including 171 negative and 168 positive SARS-CoV-2 subjects and a further group of 207 subjects of the COVID-19 family clusters follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Assay imprecision ranged from 3.98 to 12.18% being satisfactory at low and medium levels; linearity was excellent in all the measurement range. Considering specimens collected after 14 days post symptoms onset, overall sensitivity and specificity were 99.0 and 92.5%, respectively. A total of 281 leftover samples results of the PRNT50 test were available. An elevated correlation was obtained between the SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG assay and the PRNT50 titer at univariate (ρ=0.689) and multivariate (ρ=0.712) analyses. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG assay shows satisfactory analytical and clinical performances, and a strong correlation with sera neutralizing activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
Cell Rep ; 34(11): 108852, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135278

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children to define immune correlates of protection upon immunization or infection. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 66 COVID-19-infected children at 7 (±2) days after symptom onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance and lower viral load associated with a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells and Spike-specific B cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and PRNT+ patients show higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work sheds lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children, which may drive future vaccination trial endpoints and quarantine measures policies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Load/immunology
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146191, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117651

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led people to implement preventive measures, including surface disinfection and use of alcohol-based hand gel, in order to avoid viral transmission via fomites. However, the role of surface transmission is still debated. The present systematic review aims to summarize all the evidence on surface survival of coronaviruses infecting humans. The analysis of 18 studies showed the longest coronavirus survival time is 28 days at room temperature (RT) on different surfaces: polymer banknotes, vinyl, steel, glass, and paper banknotes. Concerning SARS-CoV-2 human infection from contaminated surfaces, dangerous viral load on surfaces for up to 21 days was determined on polymer banknotes, steel, glass and paper banknotes. For viruses other than SARS-CoV-2, the longest period of survival was 14 days, recorded on glass. Environmental conditions can affect virus survival, and indeed, low temperatures and low humidity support prolonged survival of viruses on contaminated surfaces independently of surface type. Furthermore, it has been shown that exposure to sunlight significantly reduces the risk of surface transmission. Although studies are increasingly investigating the topic of coronavirus survival, it is difficult to compare them, given the methodology differences. For this reason, it is advisable to define a reference working protocol for virus survival trials, but, as an immediate measure, there is also a need for further investigations of coronavirus survival on surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fomites , Humans , Humidity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
EBioMedicine ; 62: 103101, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable high-throughput serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are urgently needed for the effective containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it is of crucial importance to understand the strength and duration of immunity after infection, and to make informed decisions concerning the activation or discontinuation of physical distancing restrictions. METHODS: In 184 serum samples from 130 COVID-19 patients and 54 SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects, the analytical and clinical performances of four commercially available chemiluminescent assays (Abbott SARS-Cov-2 IgG, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2, Ortho SARS-CoV-2 total and IgG) and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Diesse ENZY-WELL SARS-CoV-2 IgG) were evaluated and compared with the neutralization activity achieved using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). FINDINGS: Precision results ranged from 0.9% to 11.8% for all assays. Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated linearity of results at concentrations within the cut-off value. Overall, sensitivity ranged from 78.5 to 87.7%, and specificity, from 97.6 to 100%. On limiting the analysis to samples collected 12 days after onset of symptoms, the sensitivity of all assays increased, the highest value (95.2%) being obtained with VITRO Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total and Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The strongest PRNT50 correlation with antibody levels was obtained with ENZY-Well SARS-CoV-2 IgG (R2adj = 0.569). INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed that all immunoassays had an excellent specificity, whereas sensitivity varied across immunoassays, depending strongly on the time interval between symptoms onset and sample collection. Further studies should be conducted to achieve a stronger correlation between antibody measurement and PRNT50 in order to obtain useful information for providing a better management of COVID-19 patients, effective passive antibody therapy, and developing a vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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