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1.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1427-1437, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084928

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence describing the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness following vaccination and booster with BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines is needed, particularly for high-risk populations. Objective: To describe the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness among a cohort that received vaccination plus a booster vaccine dose. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of adults receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities across the US who received a vaccination series plus 1 booster against SARS-CoV-2, conducted from July 1, 2021, to May 30, 2022. Patients were eligible if they had received a primary care visit in the prior 2 years and had documented receipt of all US Food and Drug Administration-authorized doses of the initial mRNA vaccine or viral vector vaccination series after December 11, 2020, and a subsequent documented booster dose between July 1, 2021, and April 29, 2022. The analytic cohort consisted of 1 610 719 participants. Exposures: Receipt of any combination of mRNA-1273 (Moderna), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) primary vaccination series and a booster dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were breakthrough COVID-19 (symptomatic infection), hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death, and hospitalization with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death. A subgroup analysis of nonoverlapping populations included those aged 65 years or older, those with high-risk comorbid conditions, and those with immunocompromising conditions. Results: Of 1 610 719 participants, 1 100 280 (68.4%) were aged 65 years or older and 132 243 (8.2%) were female; 1 133 785 (70.4%) had high-risk comorbid conditions, 155 995 (9.6%) had immunocompromising conditions, and 1 467 879 (91.1%) received the same type of mRNA vaccine (initial series and booster). Over 24 weeks, 125.0 (95% CI, 123.3-126.8) per 10 000 persons had breakthrough COVID-19, 8.9 (95% CI, 8.5-9.4) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or died, and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.1-3.7) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with severe pneumonia or died. For high-risk populations, incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death was as follows: aged 65 years or older, 1.9 (95% CI, 1.4-2.6) per 10 000 persons; high-risk comorbid conditions, 6.7 (95% CI, 6.2-7.2) per 10 000 persons; and immunocompromising conditions, 39.6 (95% CI, 36.6-42.9) per 10 000 persons. Subgroup analyses of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or death by time after booster demonstrated similar incidence estimates among those aged 65 years or older and with high-risk comorbid conditions but not among those with immunocompromising conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: In a US cohort of patients receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities during a period of Delta and Omicron variant predominance, there was a low incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death following vaccination and booster with any of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or Ad26.COV2.S vaccines.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Ad26COVS1/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Veterans Health Services/statistics & numerical data
2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(1): 161, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995949
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2220093, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919175

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding how the COVID-19 pandemic affected people's desire to avoid pregnancy is essential for interpreting the pandemic's associations with access to reproductive health care and reproductive autonomy. Early research is largely cross-sectional and relies on people's own evaluations of how their desires changed. Objective: To investigate longitudinal changes in pregnancy desires during the year before and the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, participants reported their pregnancy preferences at baseline and quarterly for up to 18 months between March 2019 and March 2021. An interrupted time series analysis with mixed-effects segmented linear regression was used to examine population-averaged time trends. People were recruited from 7 primary and reproductive health care facilities in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Participants were sexually active, pregnancy-capable people aged 15 to 34 years who were not pregnant or sterilized. Data analysis was performed from September 2021 to January 2022. Exposures: Continuous time, with knots at the onset of the first (July 1, 2020, summer surge) and second (November 1, 2020, fall surge) COVID-19 cases surges in the Southwest. Main Outcomes and Measures: Preferences around potential pregnancy in the next 3 months, measured using the validated Desire to Avoid Pregnancy (DAP) scale (range, 0-4, with 4 indicating a higher desire to avoid pregnancy). Results: The 627 participants in the analytical sample had a mean (SD) age of 24.9 (4.9) years; 320 (51.0%) identified as Latinx and 180 (28.7%) as White. Over the year before the first case surge in the US Southwest in summer 2020, population-averaged DAP scores decreased steadily over time (-0.06 point per quarter; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.04 point per quarter; P < .001). During the summer 2020 surge, DAP scores stopped declining (0.05 point per quarter; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.13 point per quarter; change in slope, P < .001). During the fall 2020 surge, however, DAP scores declined again at -0.11 point per quarter (95% CI, -0.26 to 0.04 point per quarter; change in slope, P = .10). Participants aged 15 to 24 years and those who were nulliparous and primiparous experienced greater declines in DAP score before the summer surge, and greater reversals of decline between summer and fall 2020, than did those who were aged 25 to 34 years and multiparous. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic onset was associated with the stalling of a prior trend toward greater desire for pregnancy over time, particularly for people earlier in their reproductive lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parity , Pregnancy
4.
JAMA ; 327(15): 1488-1495, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919133

ABSTRACT

Importance: The racial and ethnic diversity of the US, including among patients receiving their care at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), is increasing. Dementia is a significant public health challenge and may have greater incidence among older adults from underrepresented racial and ethnic minority groups. Objective: To determine dementia incidence across 5 racial and ethnic groups and by US geographical region within a large, diverse, national cohort of older veterans who received care in the largest integrated health care system in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study within the VHA of a random sample (5% sample selected for each fiscal year) of 1 869 090 participants aged 55 years or older evaluated from October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2019 (the date of final follow-up). Exposures: Self-reported racial and ethnic data were obtained from the National Patient Care Database. US region was determined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regions from residential zip codes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident diagnosis of dementia (9th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases). Fine-Gray proportional hazards models were used to examine time to diagnosis, with age as the time scale and accounting for competing risk of death. Results: Among the 1 869 090 study participants (mean age, 69.4 [SD, 7.9] years; 42 870 women [2%]; 6865 American Indian or Alaska Native [0.4%], 9391 Asian [0.5%], 176 795 Black [9.5%], 20 663 Hispanic [1.0%], and 1 655 376 White [88.6%]), 13% received a diagnosis of dementia over a mean follow-up of 10.1 years. Age-adjusted incidence of dementia per 1000 person-years was 14.2 (95% CI, 13.3-15.1) for American Indian or Alaska Native participants, 12.4 (95% CI, 11.7-13.1) for Asian participants, 19.4 (95% CI, 19.2-19.6) for Black participants, 20.7 (95% CI, 20.1-21.3) for Hispanic participants, and 11.5 (95% CI, 11.4-11.6) for White participants. Compared with White participants, the fully adjusted hazard ratios were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98-1.13) for American Indian or Alaska Native participants, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.13-1.28) for Asian participants, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.51-1.57) for Black participants, and 1.92 (95% CI, 1.82-2.02) for Hispanic participants. Across most US regions, age-adjusted dementia incidence rates were highest for Black and Hispanic participants, with rates similar among American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and White participants. Conclusions and Relevance: Among older adults who received care at VHA medical centers, there were significant differences in dementia incidence based on race and ethnicity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Veterans , Aged , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Veterans Health Services/statistics & numerical data
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 151, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the neurologic and psychiatric complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the relationship between coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) severity on hospital admission and delirium in hospitalized patients is poorly understood. This study sought to measure the association between COVID-19 severity and presence of delirium in both intensive care unit (ICU) and acute care patients by leveraging an existing hospital-wide systematic delirium screening protocol. The secondary analyses included measuring the association between age and presence of delirium, as well as the association between delirium and safety attendant use, restraint use, discharge home, and length of stay. METHODS: In this single center retrospective cohort study, we obtained electronic medical record (EMR) data using the institutional Epic Clarity database to identify all adults diagnosed with COVID-19 and hospitalized for at least 48-h from February 1-July 15, 2020. COVID-19 severity was classified into four groups. These EMR data include twice-daily delirium screenings of all patients using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (non-ICU) or CAM-ICU (ICU) per existing hospital-wide protocols. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, of whom 44 patients required ICU care and 17 met criteria for severe disease within 24-h of admission. Forty-three patients (43%) met criteria for delirium at any point in their hospitalization. Of patients with delirium, 24 (56%) were 65 years old or younger. After adjustment, patients meeting criteria for the two highest COVID-19 severity groups within 24-h of admission had 7.2 times the odds of having delirium compared to those in the lowest category [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9, 27.4; P = 0.003]. Patients > 65 years old had increased odds of delirium compared to those < 45 years old (aOR 8.7; 95% CI 2.2, 33.5; P = 0.003). Delirium was associated with increased odds of safety attendant use (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.0, 20.7; P = 0.050), decreased odds of discharge home (aOR 0.2; 95% CI 0.06, 0.6; P = 0.005), and increased length of stay (aOR 7.5; 95% CI 2.0, 13; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: While delirium is common in hospitalized patients of all ages with COVID-19, it is especially common in those with severe disease on hospital admission and those who are older. Patients with COVID-19 and delirium, compared to COVID-19 without delirium, are more likely to require safety attendants during hospitalization, less likely to be discharged home, and have a longer length of stay. Individuals with COVID-19, including younger patients, represent an important population to target for delirium screening and management as delirium is associated with important differences in both clinical care and disposition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2810-e2813, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501000

ABSTRACT

Infant outcomes after maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not well described. In a prospective US registry of 263 infants, maternal SARS-CoV-2 status was not associated with birth weight, difficulty breathing, apnea, or upper or lower respiratory infection through 8 weeks of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113031, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261749

ABSTRACT

Importance: The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) offers programs that reduce barriers to care for veterans and those with housing instability, poverty, and substance use disorder. In this setting, however, the role that social and behavioral risk factors play in COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Objective: To examine whether social and behavioral risk factors were associated with mortality among US veterans with COVID-19 and whether this association might be modified by race/ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from the VA Corporate Data Warehouse to form a cohort of veterans who received a positive COVID-19 test result between March 2 and September 30, 2020, in a VA health care facility. All veterans who met the inclusion criteria were eligible to participate in the study, and participants were followed up for 30 days after the first SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 diagnosis. The final follow-up date was October 31, 2020. Exposures: Social risk factors included housing problems and financial hardship. Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol use, and substance use. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality in the 30-day period after the SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 diagnosis date. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, clustering for health care facilities and adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, clinical factors, and month of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results: Among 27 640 veterans with COVID-19 who were included in the analysis, 24 496 were men (88.6%) and the mean (SD) age was 57.2 (16.6) years. A total of 3090 veterans (11.2%) had housing problems, 4450 (16.1%) had financial hardship, 5358 (19.4%) used alcohol, and 3569 (12.9%) reported substance use. Hospitalization occurred in 7663 veterans (27.7%), and 1230 veterans (4.5%) died. Housing problems (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.77-1.19; P = .70), financial hardship (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.97-1.31; P = .11), alcohol use (AOR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-1.01; P = .06), current tobacco use (AOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.68-1.06; P = .14), and substance use (AOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.71-1.15; P = .41) were not associated with higher mortality. Interaction analyses by race/ethnicity did not find associations between mortality and social and behavioral risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study showed that, in an integrated health system such as the VA, social and behavioral risk factors were not associated with mortality from COVID-19. Further research is needed to substantiate the potential of an integrated health system to be a model of support services for households with COVID-19 and populations who are at risk for the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Housing , Pandemics , Poverty , Substance-Related Disorders , Veterans , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , COVID-19/ethnology , Cohort Studies , Ethnicity , Female , Homeless Persons , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Racial Groups , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use , United States/epidemiology , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
9.
JAMA ; 325(19): 1955-1964, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258005

ABSTRACT

Importance: It is uncertain whether coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with cognitive decline in older adults compared with a nonsurgical method of coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]). Objective: To compare the change in the rate of memory decline after CABG vs PCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of community-dwelling participants in the Health and Retirement Study, who underwent CABG or PCI between 1998 and 2015 at age 65 years or older. Data were modeled for up to 5 years preceding and 10 years following revascularization or until death, drop out, or the 2016-2017 interview wave. The date of final follow-up was November 2017. Exposures: CABG (including on and off pump) or PCI, ascertained from Medicare fee-for-service billing records. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a summary measure of cognitive test scores and proxy cognition reports that were performed biennially in the Health and Retirement Study, referred to as memory score, normalized as a z score (ie, mean of 0, SD of 1 in a reference population of adults aged ≥72 years). Memory score was analyzed using multivariable linear mixed-effects models, with a prespecified subgroup analysis of on-pump and off-pump CABG. The minimum clinically important difference was a change of 1 SD of the population-level rate of memory decline (0.048 memory units/y). Results: Of 1680 participants (mean age at procedure, 75 years; 41% female), 665 underwent CABG (168 off pump) and 1015 underwent PCI. In the PCI group, the mean rate of memory decline was 0.064 memory units/y (95% CI, 0.052 to 0.078) before the procedure and 0.060 memory units/y (95% CI, 0.048 to 0.071) after the procedure (within-group change, 0.004 memory units/y [95% CI, -0.010 to 0.018]). In the CABG group, the mean rate of memory decline was 0.049 memory units/y (95% CI, 0.033 to 0.065) before the procedure and 0.059 memory units/y (95% CI, 0.047 to 0.072) after the procedure (within-group change, -0.011 memory units/y [95% CI, -0.029 to 0.008]). The between-group difference-in-differences estimate for memory decline for PCI vs CABG was 0.015 memory units/y (95% CI, -0.008 to 0.038; P = .21). There was statistically significant increase in the rate of memory decline after off-pump CABG compared with after PCI (difference-in-differences: mean increase in the rate of decline of 0.046 memory units/y [95% CI, 0.008 to 0.084] after off-pump CABG), but not after on-pump CABG compared with PCI (difference-in-differences: mean slowing of decline of 0.003 memory units/y [95% CI, -0.024 to 0.031] after on-pump CABG). Conclusions and Relevance: Among older adults undergoing coronary revascularization with CABG or PCI, the type of revascularization procedure was not significantly associated with differences in the change of rate of memory decline.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Memory Disorders/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Postoperative Cognitive Complications/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies
10.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(10): 684-691, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244871

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on glycemic metrics in children is uncertain. This study evaluates the effect of the shelter-in-place (SIP) mandate on glycemic metrics in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Northern California, United States. Methods: CGM and insulin pump metrics in youth 3-21 years old with T1D at an academic pediatric diabetes center were analyzed retrospectively. Data 2-4 months before (distant pre-SIP), 1 month before (immediate pre-SIP), 1 month after (immediate post-SIP), and 2-4 months after (distant post-SIP) the SIP mandate were compared using paired t-tests, linear regression, and longitudinal analysis using a mixed effects model. Results: Participants (n = 85) had reduced mean glucose (-10.3 ± 4.4 mg/dL, P = 0.009), standard deviation (SD) (-5.0 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P = 0.003), glucose management indicator (-0.2% ± 0.03%, P = 0.004), time above range (TAR) >250 mg/dL (-3.5% ± 1.7%, P = 0.01), and increased time in range (TIR) (+4.7% ± 1.7%, P = 0.0025) between the distant pre-SIP and distant post-SIP periods. Relationships were maintained using a mixed effects model, when controlling for other demographic variables. There was improvement in SD, TAR 180-250 mg/dL, and TIR for participants with private insurance, but changes in the opposite direction for participants with public insurance. Conclusions: Improvement in CGM metrics in youth with T1D during the COVID-19 pandemic suggests that diabetes management can be maintained in the face of sudden changes to daily living. Youth with public insurance deserve more attention in research and clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Adult , Benchmarking , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
J Hosp Med ; 16(4): 215-218, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140804

ABSTRACT

Some hospitals have faced a surge of patients with COVID-19, while others have not. We assessed whether COVID-19 burden (number of patients with COVID-19 admitted during April 2020 divided by hospital certified bed count) was associated with mortality in a large sample of US hospitals. Our study population included 14,226 patients with COVID-19 (median age 66 years, 45.2% women) at 117 hospitals, of whom 20.9% had died at 5 weeks of follow-up. At the hospital level, the observed mortality ranged from 0% to 44.4%. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, the adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital death in the highest quintile of burden was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.07-2.00) compared to all other quintiles. Still, there was large variability in outcomes, even among hospitals with a similar level of COVID-19 burden and after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality/trends , Aged , Comorbidity/trends , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , United States
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(6): 1117-1125, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, symptomology, and disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy. METHODS: The PRIORITY (Pregnancy CoRonavIrus Outcomes RegIsTrY) study is an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study of people in the United States who are pregnant or up to 6 weeks postpregnancy with known or suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We analyzed the clinical presentation and disease course of COVID-19 in participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and reported symptoms at the time of testing. RESULTS: Of 991 participants enrolled from March 22, 2020, until July 10, 2020, 736 had symptoms of COVID-19 at the time of testing; 594 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 142 tested negative in this symptomatic group. Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.1), and 37% will nulliparous. Ninety-five percent were outpatients. Participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-infection were a geographically diverse cohort: 34% from the Northeast, 25% from the West, 21% from the South, and 18% from the Midwest. Thirty-one percent of study participants were Latina, and 9% were Black. The average gestational age at enrollment was 24.1 weeks, and 13% of participants were enrolled after pregnancy. The most prevalent first symptoms in the cohort of patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were cough (20%), sore throat (16%), body aches (12%), and fever (12%). Median time to symptom resolution was 37 days (95% CI 35-39). One quarter (25%) of participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection had persistent symptoms 8 or more weeks after symptom onset. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a prolonged and nonspecific disease course during pregnancy and in the 6 weeks after pregnancy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04323839.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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