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1.
American Journal of Otolaryngology ; : 103445, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1777935
3.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chemosensory dysfunction in a study cohort of subjects who developed a mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the period from January 17, 2022, to February 4, 2022 (Omicron proxy period) and compared that with a historical series of patients testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection between March and April, 2020 (comparator period). METHODS: Prospective study based on the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Tool (SNOT-22), item "sense of smell or taste" and additional outcomes. RESULTS: Patients' characteristics and clinical presentations of COVID-19 were evaluated and compared in 779 patients, 338 of the study cohort and 441 of the historical series. The prevalence of self-reported chemosensory dysfunction during the proxy Omicron period (32.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27.6-37.8) was significantly lower from that during the comparator period (66.9%; 95% CI, 62.3-71.3) (p < 0.001). Nearly one-quarter of patients (24.6%; 95% CI, 20.1-29.5) reported an altered sense of smell during the proxy Omicron period compared to 62.6% (95% CI, 57.9-67.1) during the comparator period (p < 0.001). Similarly, the prevalence of an altered sense of taste dropped to 26.9% (95% CI, 22.3-32.0) during the proxy Omicron period from 57.4% (95% CI, 52.6-62.0) during the comparator period (p < 0.001). The severity of chemosensory dysfunction was lower in the proxy Omicron period compared to the comparator period (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence and the severity of COVID-19-associated smell and taste dysfunction has dropped significantly with the advent of the Omicron variant but it still remains above 30%.

4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327748

ABSTRACT

Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chemosensory dysfunction in a study cohort of subjects who developed a mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in the period from January 17, 2022 to February 4, 2022 (Omicron proxy period) and compared that with a historical series of patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and April, 2020 (comparator period). Methods Prospective study based on the sinonasal outcome tool 22 (SNOT-22), item “sense of smell or taste” and additional outcomes. Results Patients’ characteristics and clinical presentations of COVID-19 were evaluated and compared in 779 patients, 338 of the study cohort and 441 of the historical series. The prevalence of self-reported chemosensory dysfunction during the proxy Omicron period (32.5%;95% CI, 27.6-37.8) was significantly lower from that during the comparator period (66.9%;95% CI, 62.3-71.3) ( p <.001). 24.6% (95% CI, 20.1-29.5) of patients reported an altered sense of smell during the proxy Omicron period compared to 62.6% (95% CI, 57.9-67.1) during the comparator period ( p <.001). Similarly, the prevalence of an altered sense of taste dropped from 57.4% (95% CI, 52.6-62.0) during the comparator period to 26.9% (95% CI, 22.3-32.0) during the proxy Omicron period ( p <.001). The severity of chemosensory dysfunction was lower in proxy Omicron period compared to comparator period ( p <.001). Conclusions The prevalence and the severity of COVID-19 associated smell and taste dysfunction has dropped significantly with the advent of the Omicron variant.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307197

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of smell or taste impairment in household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Methods: Cross sectional study based on ad hoc questions. Results: Of 214 mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients managed at home under self-isolation, 179 reported to have at least one household contact, with the total number of no study participants contacts being 296. Among 175 household contacts not tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 67 (38.3%) had SARS-CoV-2 compatible symptoms, 39 (22.3%) had loss of smell or taste with 7 (4.0%) having loss of smell or taste in the absence of other symptoms. The prevalence of smell or taste impairment was 1.5% in patients tested negative compared to 63.0% of those tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (p<0.001). Conclusion: Smell or taste impairment are quite common in not-tested household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. This should be taken into account when estimating the burden of loss of sense of smell and taste during COVID-19 pandemic, and further highlights the value of loss of sense of smell and taste as a marker of infection.

6.
Life (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625852

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Persistent olfactory (POD) and gustatory (PGD) dysfunctions are one of the most frequent symptoms of long-Coronavirus Disease 2019 but their effect on the quality of life (QoL) of patients is still largely unexplored. (2) Methods: An online survey was administered to individuals who reported to have had SARS-CoV-2 infection at least 6 months prior with persisting COVID-19 symptoms (using the COVID symptom index), including ratings of POD and PGD, and their physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of quality of life were assessed using the standardized short form 12 questionnaire (SF-12). (3) Results: Responses from 431 unique individuals were included in the analyses. The most frequent persistent symptoms were: fatigue (185 cases, 42.9%), olfactory dysfunction (127 cases, 29.5%), gustatory dysfunction (96 cases, 22.3%) and muscle pain (83 cases, 19.3%). Respondents who reported persisting muscle pain, joint pain, fatigue, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, and dyspnea had significantly worse PCS. Those experiencing persistent fatigue and dyspnea also showed significantly lower MCS. Respondents reporting POD or PGD showed significantly worse QoL, but only pertaining to the MCS. Multiple regressions predicted MCS based on olfactory and marginally on gustatory ratings, but not PCS. Age significantly affected the prediction of PCS but not MCS, and gender and temporal distance from the COVID-19 diagnosis had no effect. (4) Conclusions: POD and PGD are frequent symptoms of the long-COVID-19 syndrome and significantly reduce QoL, specifically in the mental health component. This evidence should stimulate the establishment of appropriate infrastructure to support individuals with persistent CD, while research on effective therapies scales up.

8.
Front Neurol ; 12: 794471, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581261

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mainly colonizes nasopharynx. In upper airways acute infections, e.g., the common cold, saline nasal irrigations have a significant efficacy in reducing symptoms. The present study aimed to test the efficacy of nasal lavages in upper airways symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A series of consecutive adult subjects who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from December 2020 to February 2021 performed daily nasal lavages with saline solution (Lavonase®-Purling, Lugo di Romagna, Italy) for 12 days, starting on the day after the SARS-CoV-2 positive swab. A control group included a historical series of patients who were infected in February-March 2020 and who did not perform lavages. An ad hoc questionnaire regarding symptoms was administered to each subjects at base-line and 10 days after diagnosis (i.e., on the same day of the control swab) in both cases and controls. Results: A total of 140 subjects were enrolled. 68 participants in the treatment group and 72 in the control group were included. 90% of respondents declared the lavages were simple to use and 70% declared they were satisfied. Symptoms of blocked nose, runny nose, or sneezing decreased by an average of 24.7% after the treatment. Blocked nose and sneezing increased in the same period of time in the control group. Ears and eyes symptoms, anosmia/ageusia symptoms, and infection duration (10.53 days in the treatment group and 10.48 days in the control group) didn't vary significantly among the two groups. Conclusion: Nasal lavages resulted to significantly decrease nasal symptoms in newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 patients. These devices proved to be well-tolerated and easy to be used. Further studies on a larger number of subjects are needed in order to possibly confirm these preliminary results.

10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211061511, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528640

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this multicenter case-control study was to evaluate a group of patients at least 1 year after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with Sniffin' Sticks tests and to compare the results with a control population to quantify the potential bias introduced by the underlying prevalence of olfactory dysfunction (OD) in the general population. The study included 170 cases and 170 controls. In the COVID-19 group, 26.5% of cases had OD (anosmia in 4.7%, hyposmia in 21.8%) versus 3.5% in the control group (6 cases of hyposmia). The TDI score (threshold, discrimination, and identification) in the COVID-19 group was significantly lower than in the control group (32.5 [interquartile range, 29-36.5] vs 36.75 [34-39.5], P < .001). The prevalence of OD was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group, confirming that this result is not due to the underlying prevalence of OD in the general population.

11.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 419-421, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527451

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of patients who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after full vaccination. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical data were collected through medical records and online patient-reported outcome questionnaire from patients who developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab, at least 2 weeks after completion of vaccination. A total of 153 subjects were included. The most frequent symptoms were: asthenia (82.4%), chemosensory dysfunction (63.4%), headache (59.5%), runny nose (58.2%), muscle pain (54.9%), loss of appetite (54.3%), and nasal obstruction (51.6%). Particularly, 62.3% and 53.6% of subjects reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. Symptom severity was mild or moderate in almost all cases. Chemosensory dysfunctions have been observed to be a frequent symptom even in subjects who contracted the infection after full vaccination. For this reason, the sudden loss of smell and taste could continue to represent a useful and specific diagnostic marker to raise the suspicion of COVID-19 even in vaccinated subjects. In the future, it will be necessary to establish what the recovery rate is in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:419-421, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste/drug effects , Vaccination
12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14829, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the CoronaVirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Questionnaire (COVID-Q), a novel symptom questionnaire specific for COVID-19 patients, to provide a comprehensive evaluation that may be helpful for physicians, and evaluate the questionnaire's performance in identifying subjects at higher risk of testing positive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive non-hospitalised adults who underwent nasopharyngeal-throat swab for severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection at Treviso Hospital in March 2020, were enrolled. Subjects were divided into positive (cases) and negative (controls). All subjects answered the COVID-Q. Patients not able to answer COVID-Q because of clinical conditions were excluded. Parallel Analysis and Principal Component Analysis identified items measuring the same dimension. The Item Response Theory (IRT)-based analyses evaluated the functioning of item categories, the presence of clusters of local dependence among items, item fit within the model and model fit to the data. RESULTS: Answers obtained from 230 cases (113 males; mean age 55 years, range 20-99) and 230 controls (61 males; mean age 46 years, range 21-89) were analysed. Six components were extracted with parallel analysis: asthenia, influenza-like symptoms, ear and nose symptoms, breathing issues, throat symptoms, and anosmia/ageusia. The final IRT models retained 27 items as significant for symptom assessment. The total questionnaire's score was significantly associated with positivity to the molecular test: subjects with multiple symptoms were more likely to be affected (P < .001). Older age, male gender presence of breathing issues and anosmia/ageusia were significantly related to positivity (P < .001). Comorbidities had not a significant association with the COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: COVID-Q could be validated since the evaluated aspects were overall significantly related to infection. The application of the questionnaire to clinical practice may help to identify subjects who are likely to be affected by COVID-19 and address them to a nasopharyngeal swab in order to achieve an early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 6(4): 646-649, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nose and nasopharyngeal swab is the preferred and worldwide-accepted method to detect the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within the nose and nasopharynx. This method may be linked with possible difficulties, such as patient's discomfort or complications. This article shows a pilot study of SARS-CoV-2 detection with nasal and nasopharyngeal lavage fluids (level of evidence: 3). METHODS: Nasal lavage fluid was collected from patients who were submitted to SARS-CoV-2 screening test, due to a preceding positive rapid antigen test. A control group was enrolled among health care professionals whose nasopharyngeal swab tested negative. Nasal lavages were performed using isotonic saline solution injected through a nasal fossa. Both lavage fluid and traditional nasopharyngeal swab were analyzed by real-time (RT) PCR and antigenic test. RESULTS: A total of 49 positive subjects were enrolled in the study. Results of the analysis on lavages and nasopharyngeal swabs were concordant for 48 cases, regardless of the antigenic and molecular test performed. RT-PCR resulted weakly positive at swab in one case and negative at lavage fluid. Among the control group (44 subjects), nasopharyngeal swab and lavage fluid analyses returned a negative result. Sensitivity of the molecular test based on nasal lavage fluid, compared to traditional nasal swab, was 97.7%, specificity was 100%, and accuracy was 98.9%, with high agreement (Cohen's κ, 0.978). CONCLUSION: Nasal and nasopharyngeal lavages resulted to be highly reliable and well tolerated. A larger series is needed to confirm these results. This approach may potentially represent a valid alternative to the traditional swab method in selected cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

15.
J Dr Nurs Pract ; 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infection Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has spread all over the world since December 2019. Treatment of the syndrome represents an important challenge for all physicians. Spread prevention relies on a correct diagnosis which is performed with nasopharyngeal swabs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the proper execution of the swab with a few simple steps. METHODS: Figures and video recording. RESULTS: A few simple steps are presented within this paper in order to perform easily nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-Cov-2 diagnosis and for other possible infectious diseases of the airways tract. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR NURSING: Nasopharyngeal swab may be performed in an easier way than usually thought. This method may also be used for any other microorganism detection. By following simple steps, a correct diagnosis can easily be obtained.

17.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(2): 101-107, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present with a wide range of symptoms. In this paper, a detailed characterisation of mild-to-moderate ear, nose nd throat (ENT) symptoms is presented with the aim of recognising the disease early to help reduce further spread and progression. METHODS: A total of 230 cases testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 134 negative controls were recruited for a case-control analysis. Symptoms were analysed using the Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Questionnaire, while other symptoms were investigated by ad hoc questions. RESULTS: Among the study samples (n = 364), 149 were males and 215 were females with age ranging from 20 to 89 years (mean 52.3). Four main groups of symptoms were obtained: influenza-like symptoms, ENT-symptoms, breathing issues and asthenia-related symptoms, representing 72%, 69%, 64% and 53% of overall referred clinical manifestations, respectively. ENT symptoms, breathing issues and influenza-like symptoms were associated with positivity to SARS-CoV-2, whereas asthenia-related symptoms did not show a significant association with SARS-CoV-2 infection after controlling for other symptoms, comorbidities and demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: ENT symptoms are equally represented with influenza-like ones as presenting symptoms of COVID-19. Patients with ENT symptoms should be investigated for early identification and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
18.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(3): 197-205, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue are thought to influence the manifestations of COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether a previous history of tonsillectomy, as a surrogate indicator of a dysfunctional pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue, could predict the presentation and course of COVID-19. METHODS: Multicentric cross-sectional observational study involving seven hospitals in Northern and Central Italy. Data on the clinical course and signs and symptoms of the infection were collected from 779 adults who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and analysed in relation to previous tonsillectomy, together with demographic and anamnestic data. RESULTS: Patients with previous tonsillectomy showed a greater risk of fever, temperature higher than 39°C, chills and malaise. No significant differences in hospital admissions were found. CONCLUSIONS: A previous history of tonsillectomy, as a surrogate indicator of immunological dysfunction of the pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue, could predict a more intense systemic manifestation of COVID-19. These results could provide a simple clinical marker to discriminate suspected carriers and to delineate more precise prognostic models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Palatine Tonsil , Tonsillectomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(1): 515-520, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the 1 year prevalence and recovery rate of self-reported chemosensory dysfunction in a series of subjects with previous mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective study based on the SNOT-22, item "sense of smell or taste" and additional outcomes. RESULTS: 268/315 patients (85.1%) completing the survey at baseline also completed the follow-up interview. The 12 months prevalence of self-reported COVID-19 associated chemosensory dysfunction was 21.3% (95% CI 16.5-26.7%). Of the 187 patients who complained of COVID-19 associated chemosensory dysfunction at baseline, 130 (69.5%; 95% CI 62.4-76.0%) reported complete resolution of smell or taste impairment, 41 (21.9%) reported a decrease in the severity, and 16 (8.6%) reported the symptom was unchanged or worse 1 year after onset. The risk of persistence was higher for patients reporting a baseline SNOT-22 score ≥ 4 (OR = 3.32; 95% CI 1.32-8.36) as well as for those requiring ≥ 22 days for a negative swab (OR = 2.18; 95% CI 1.12-4.27). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of patients with previous mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19 characterized by new onset of chemosensory dysfunction still complained on altered sense of smell or taste 1 year after the onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
20.
Acta Biomed ; 92(1): e2021105, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122048

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 has stressed health care systems worldwide. The high volume of patients, combined with an increased need for intensive care and potential transmission, has forced reorganization of hospitals and care delivery models. In this article, are presented approaches to minimize risk to Otolaryngologists during their patients infected with COVID-19 care. We performed a narrative literature review among PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases, searching for studies on SARS-CoV2 and Risk Management. Standard operating procedures have been adapted both for facilities and for health care workers, including the development of well-defined and segregated patient care areas for treating those affected by COVID-19. Personal protective equipment (PPEs) availability and adequate healthcare providers training on their use should be ensured. Preventive measures are especially important in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, as the exposure to saliva suspensions, droplets and aerosols are increased in the upper aero-digestive tract routine examination. Morever, the frequent invasive procedures, such as laryngoscopy, intubation or tracheotomy placement and care, represent a high risk of contracting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Otolaryngologists , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Tracheostomy
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