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J Affect Disord ; 326: 249-261, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245357


BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Outcome study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT; is an anonymous and global online survey measuring health and functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to test concurrently the validity of COH-FIT items and the internal validity of the co-primary outcome, a composite psychopathology "P-score". METHODS: The COH-FIT survey has been translated into 30 languages (two blind forward-translations, consensus, one independent English back-translation, final harmonization). To measure mental health, 1-4 items ("COH-FIT items") were extracted from validated questionnaires (e.g. Patient Health Questionnaire 9). COH-FIT items measured anxiety, depressive, post-traumatic, obsessive-compulsive, bipolar and psychotic symptoms, as well as stress, sleep and concentration. COH-FIT Items which correlated r ≥ 0.5 with validated companion questionnaires, were initially retained. A P-score factor structure was then identified from these items using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on data split into training and validation sets. Consistency of results across languages, gender and age was assessed. RESULTS: From >150,000 adult responses by May 6th, 2022, a subset of 22,456 completed both COH-FIT items and validated questionnaires. Concurrent validity was consistently demonstrated across different languages for COH-FIT items. CFA confirmed EFA results of five first-order factors (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic, psychotic, psychophysiologic symptoms) and revealed a single second-order factor P-score, with high internal reliability (ω = 0.95). Factor structure was consistent across age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: COH-FIT is a valid instrument to globally measure mental health during infection times. The P-score is a valid measure of multidimensional mental health.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Psychometrics
Front Neurol ; 13: 774953, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785380


The clinical outcome of the disease provoked by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19, is largely due to the development of interstitial pneumonia accompanied by an Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often requiring ventilatory support therapy in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Current epidemiologic evidence is demonstrating that the COVID-19 prognosis is significantly influenced by its acute complications. Among these, delirium figures as one of the most frequent and severe, especially in the emergency setting, where it shows a significantly negative prognostic impact. In this regard, the aim of our study is to identify clinical severity factors of delirium complicating COVID-19 related-ARDS. We performed a comparative and correlation analysis using demographics, comorbidities, multisystemic and delirium severity scores and anti-delirium therapy in two cohorts of ARDS patients with delirium, respectively, due to COVID-19 (n = 40) or other medical conditions (n = 39). Our results indicate that delirium in COVID-19-related ARDS is more severe since its onset despite a relatively less severe systemic condition at the point of ICU admission and required higher dosages of antipsychotic and non-benzodiazepinic sedative therapy respect to non-COVID patients. Finally, the correlation analysis showed a direct association between the male gender and maximum dosage of anti-delirium medications needed within the COVID-19 group, which was taken as a surrogate of delirium severity. Overall, our results seem to indicate that pathogenetic factors specifically associated to severe COVID-19 are responsible for the high severity of delirium, paving the way for future research focused on the mechanisms of the cognitive alterations associated with COVID-19.

J Affect Disord ; 299: 367-376, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598263


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered daily routines and family functioning, led to closing schools, and dramatically limited social interactions worldwide. Measuring its impact on mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents is crucial. METHODS: The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT - is an on-line anonymous survey, available in 30 languages, involving >230 investigators from 49 countries supported by national/international professional associations. COH-FIT has thee waves (until the pandemic is declared over by the WHO, and 6-18 months plus 24-36 months after its end). In addition to adults, COH-FIT also includes adolescents (age 14-17 years), and children (age 6-13 years), recruited via non-probability/snowball and representative sampling and assessed via self-rating and parental rating. Non-modifiable/modifiable risk factors/treatment targets to inform prevention/intervention programs to promote health and prevent mental and physical illness in children and adolescents will be generated by COH-FIT. Co-primary outcomes are changes in well-being (WHO-5) and a composite psychopathology P-Score. Multiple behavioral, family, coping strategy and service utilization factors are also assessed, including functioning and quality of life. RESULTS: Up to June 2021, over 13,000 children and adolescents from 59 countries have participated in the COH-FIT project, with representative samples from eleven countries. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional and anonymous design. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence generated by COH-FIT will provide an international estimate of the COVID-19 effect on children's, adolescents' and families', mental and physical health, well-being, functioning and quality of life, informing the formulation of present and future evidence-based interventions and policies to minimize adverse effects of the present and future pandemics on youth.

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Promotion , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
J Affect Disord ; 299: 393-407, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587438


BACKGROUND: . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed. METHODS: . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/regions, endorsed by national/international professional associations. COH-FIT is a multi-wave, on-line anonymous, cross-sectional survey [wave 1: 04/2020 until the end of the pandemic, 12 months waves 2/3 starting 6/24 months threreafter] for adults, adolescents (14-17), and children (6-13), utilizing non-probability/snowball and representative sampling. COH-FIT aims to identify non-modifiable/modifiable risk factors/treatment targets to inform prevention/intervention programs to improve social/health outcomes in the general population/vulnerable subgrous during/after COVID-19. In adults, co-primary outcomes are change from pre-COVID-19 to intra-COVID-19 in well-being (WHO-5) and a composite psychopathology P-Score. Key secondary outcomes are a P-extended score, global mental and physical health. Secondary outcomes include health-service utilization/functioning, treatment adherence, functioning, symptoms/behaviors/emotions, substance use, violence, among others. RESULTS: . Starting 04/26/2020, up to 14/07/2021 >151,000 people from 155 countries/territories/regions and six continents have participated. Representative samples of ≥1,000 adults have been collected in 15 countries. Overall, 43.0% had prior physical disorders, 16.3% had prior mental disorders, 26.5% were health care workers, 8.2% were aged ≥65 years, 19.3% were exposed to someone infected with COVID-19, 76.1% had been in quarantine, and 2.1% had been COVID 19-positive. LIMITATIONS: . Cross-sectional survey, preponderance of non-representative participants. CONCLUSIONS: . Results from COH-FIT will comprehensively quantify the impact of COVID-19, seeking to identify high-risk groups in need for acute and long-term intervention, and inform evidence-based health policies/strategies during this/future pandemics.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Humans , Mental Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
Adv Nutr ; 13(1): 66-79, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462267


The outbreak of the pandemic associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led researchers to find new potential treatments, including nonpharmacological molecules such as zinc (Zn2+). Specifically, the use of Zn2+ as a therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection is based on several findings: 1) the possible role of the anti-inflammatory activity of Zn2+ on the aberrant inflammatory response triggered by COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19), 2) properties of Zn2+ in modulating the competitive balance between the host and the invading pathogens, and 3) the antiviral activity of Zn2+ on a number of pathogens, including coronaviruses. Furthermore, Zn2+ has been found to play a central role in regulating brain functioning and many disorders have been associated with Zn2+ deficiency, including neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric disorders, and brain injuries. Within this context, we carried out a narrative review to provide an overview of the evidence relating to the effects of Zn2+ on the immune and nervous systems, and the therapeutic use of such micronutrients in both neurological and infective disorders, with the final goal of elucidating the possible use of Zn2+ as a preventive or therapeutic intervention in COVID-19. Overall, the results from the available evidence showed that, owing to its neuroprotective properties, Zn2+ supplementation could be effective not only on COVID-19-related symptoms but also on virus replication, as well as on COVID-19-related inflammation and neurological damage. However, further clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of Zn2+ as a nonpharmacological treatment of COVID-19 are required to achieve an overall improvement in outcome and prognosis.

COVID-19 , Humans , Micronutrients , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc