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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649609

ABSTRACT

Cellular and molecular mechanisms driving morbidity following SARS-CoV-2 infection have not been well defined. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a central mediator of tissue injury and contributes to SARS-CoV-2 disease pathogenesis. In this study, we temporally delineated key cell and molecular events leading to lung injury in mice following SARS-CoV-2 infection and assessed efficacy of therapeutically targeting RAGE to improve survival. Early following infection, SARS-CoV-2 replicated to high titers within the lungs and evaded triggering inflammation and cell death. However, a significant necrotic cell death event in CD45- populations, corresponding with peak viral loads, was observed on day 2 after infection. Metabolic reprogramming and inflammation were initiated following this cell death event and corresponded with increased lung interstitial pneumonia, perivascular inflammation, and endothelial hyperplasia together with decreased oxygen saturation. Therapeutic treatment with the RAGE antagonist FPS-ZM1 improved survival in infected mice and limited inflammation and associated perivascular pathology. Together, these results provide critical characterization of disease pathogenesis in the mouse model and implicate a role for RAGE signaling as a therapeutic target to improve outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Lung , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/genetics , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism
2.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105246, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639070

ABSTRACT

The utility of remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients is currently limited by the necessity to administer this antiviral intravenously, which has generally limited its use to hospitalized patients. Here, we tested a novel, subcutaneous formulation of remdesivir in the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was previously used to establish the efficacy of remdesivir against this virus in vivo. Compared to vehicle-treated animals, macaques treated with subcutaneous remdesivir from 12 h through 6 days post inoculation showed reduced signs of respiratory disease, a reduction of virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, and an absence of interstitial pneumonia. Thus, early subcutaneous administration of remdesivir can protect from lower respiratory tract disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Cutaneous , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637974

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, we used the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight older and eight younger macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using viral RNA quantification, clinical observations, thoracic radiographs, single-cell transcriptomics, multiparameter flow cytometry, multiplex immunohistochemistry, cytokine detection, and lipidomics analysis at predefined time points in various tissues. Differences in clinical signs, pulmonary infiltrates, and virus replication were limited. Transcriptional signatures of inflammation-associated genes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 3 dpi revealed efficient mounting of innate immune defenses in both cohorts. However, age-specific divergence of immune responses emerged during the post-acute phase. Older animals exhibited sustained local inflammatory innate responses, whereas local effector T-cell responses were induced earlier in the younger animals. Circulating lipid mediator and cytokine levels highlighted increased repair-associated signals in the younger animals, and persistent pro-inflammatory responses in the older animals. In summary, despite similar disease outcomes, multi-omics profiling suggests that age may delay or impair antiviral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , Animals , Antibody Formation/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Models, Biological , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription, Genetic
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572667

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an altered, but not significantly different, systemic IL-10 and IL-6 profile, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, partially recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Lipid Metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Fibrin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugars , Vasculitis/pathology , Virus Shedding
5.
Applied Biosafety ; 2021.
Article in English | Mary Ann Liebert | ID: covidwho-1554776

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) is often the most appropriate technique to obtain pure populations of a cell type of interest for downstream analysis. However, aerosol droplets can be generated during the sort, which poses a biosafety risk when working with samples containing risk group 3 pathogens such as Francisella tularensis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Yersinia pestis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. For many researchers, placing the equipment required for FACS at biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is often not possible due to expense, space, or expertise available. Methods: We performed aerosol testing as part of the biosafety evaluation of the MACSQuant Tyto, a completely closed, cartridge-based cell sorter. We also established quality control procedures to routinely evaluate instrument performance. Results: The MACSQuant Tyto does not produce aerosols as part of the sort procedure. Discussion: These data serve as guidance for other facilities with containment laboratories wishing to use the MACSQuant Tyto for cell sorting. Potential users should consult with their Institutional Biosafety Committees to perform in-house risk assessments of this equipment. Conclusion: The MACSQuant Tyto can safely be used on the benchtop to sort samples at BSL-3.

6.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750515

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age,hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities converge to enable severe infection is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19. Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.

7.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2399-2404, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450887

ABSTRACT

Immunity to pulmonary infection typically requires elicitation of lung-resident T cells that subsequently confer protection against secondary infection. The presence of tissue-resident T cells in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) convalescent patients is unknown. Using a sublethal mouse model of coronavirus disease 2019, we determined if SARS-CoV-2 infection potentiated Ag-specific pulmonary resident CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and if these cells mediated protection against secondary infection. S protein-specific T cells were present in resident and circulating populations. However, M and N protein-specific T cells were detected only in the resident T cell pool. Using an adoptive transfer strategy, we found that T cells from SARS-CoV-2 immune animals did not protect naive mice. These data indicate that resident T cells are elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection but are not sufficient for protective immunity.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adoptive Transfer , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Resistance , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity
8.
Res Sq ; 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431218

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.1 Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities converge to enable severe infection is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19.1-7 Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.8.

9.
iScience ; 24(9): 103025, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370208

ABSTRACT

Resolution of infection results in development of trained innate immunity which is typically beneficial for defense against unrelated secondary infection. Epigenetic changes including modification of histones via binding of various polar metabolites underlie the establishment of trained innate immunity. Therefore, host metabolism and this response are intimately linked. However, little is known regarding the influence of lipids on the development and function of trained immunity. Utilizing two models of pulmonary bacterial infection combined with multi-omic approaches, we identified persistent, pathogen-specific changes to the lung lipidome that correlated with differences in the trained immune response against a third unrelated pathogen. Further, we establish the specific cellular populations in the lung that contribute to this altered lipidome. Together these results expand our understanding of the pulmonary trained innate immune response and the contributions of host lipids in informing that response.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2295, 2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189225

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic progresses unabated in many regions of the world. An effective antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 that could be administered orally for use following high-risk exposure would be of substantial benefit in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we show that MK-4482, an orally administered nucleoside analog, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in the Syrian hamster model. The inhibitory effect of MK-4482 on SARS-CoV-2 replication is observed in animals when the drug is administered either beginning 12 h before or 12 h following infection in a high-risk exposure model. These data support the potential utility of MK-4482 to control SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans following high-risk exposure as well as for treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells
11.
J Immunol ; 206(2): 329-334, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961742

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 20 million people worldwide, with mortality exceeding 800,000 patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome, including immunomodulatory eicosanoid and docosanoid lipid mediators (LMs). We hypothesized that dysregulation of LMs may be a defining feature of the severity of COVID-19. By examining LMs and polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor lipids in serum from hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we demonstrate that moderate and severe disease are separated by specific differences in abundance of immune-regulatory and proinflammatory LMs. This difference in LM balance corresponded with decreased LM products of ALOX12 and COX2 and an increase LMs products of ALOX5 and cytochrome p450. Given the important immune-regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into an immuno-lipidomic imbalance in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eicosanoids , Lipidomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase/immunology , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/immunology , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2/immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Eicosanoids/blood , Eicosanoids/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
JCI Insight ; 5(23)2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890008

ABSTRACT

We remain largely without effective prophylactic/therapeutic interventions for COVID-19. Although many human COVID-19 clinical trials are ongoing, there remains a deficiency of supportive preclinical drug efficacy studies to help guide decisions. Here we assessed the prophylactic/therapeutic efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a drug of interest for COVID-19 management, in 2 animal disease models. The standard human malaria HCQ prophylaxis (6.5 mg/kg given weekly) and treatment (6.5 mg/kg given daily) did not significantly benefit clinical outcome, nor did it reduce SARS-CoV-2 replication/shedding in the upper and lower respiratory tract in the rhesus macaque disease model. Similarly, when used for prophylaxis or treatment, neither the standard human malaria dose (6.5 mg/kg) nor a high dose (50 mg/kg) of HCQ had any beneficial effect on clinical disease or SARS-CoV-2 kinetics (replication/shedding) in the Syrian hamster disease model. Results from these 2 preclinical animal models may prove helpful in guiding clinical use of HCQ for prophylaxis/treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
13.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830588

ABSTRACT

Rigorous assessment of the cellular and molecular changes during infection typically requires isolation of specific immune cell subsets for downstream application. While there are numerous options for enrichment/isolation of cells from tissues, fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) is accepted as a method that results in superior purification of a wide variety of cell types. Flow cytometry requires extensive fluidics and aerosol droplets can be generated during collection of target cells. Pathogens such as Francisella tularensis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Yersinia pestis, and SARS-CoV-2 require manipulation at biosafety level-3 (BSL-3). Due to the concern of potential aerosolization of these pathogens, use of flow cytometric-based cell sorting in these laboratory settings requires placement of the equipment in dedicated biosafety cabinets within the BSL-3. For many researchers, this is often not possible due to expense, space, or expertise available. Here we describe the safety validation and utility of a completely closed cell sorter that results in gentle, rapid, high purity, and safe sorting of cells on the benchtop at BSL-3. We also provide data demonstrating the need for cell sorting versus bead purification and the applicability of this technology for BSL-3 and potentially BSL-4 related infectious disease projects. Adoption of this technology will significantly expand our ability to uncover important features of the most dangerous infectious diseases leading to faster development of novel vaccines and therapeutics.

14.
Nature ; 585(7824): 273-276, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592386

ABSTRACT

Effective therapies to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. While many investigational, approved, and repurposed drugs have been suggested as potential treatments, preclinical data from animal models can guide the search for effective treatments by ruling out those that lack efficacy in vivo. Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a nucleotide analogue prodrug with broad antiviral activity1,2 that is currently being investigated in COVID-19 clinical trials and recently received Emergency Use Authorization from the US Food and Drug Administration3,4. In animal models, remdesivir was effective against infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2,5,6. In vitro, remdesivir inhibited replication of SARS-CoV-27,8. Here we investigate the efficacy of remdesivir in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection9. Unlike vehicle-treated animals, macaques treated with remdesivir did not show signs of respiratory disease; they also showed reduced pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs and reduced virus titres in bronchoalveolar lavages twelve hours after the first dose. Virus shedding from the upper respiratory tract was not reduced by remdesivir treatment. At necropsy, remdesivir-treated animals had lower lung viral loads and reduced lung damage. Thus, treatment with remdesivir initiated early during infection had a clinical benefit in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. Although the rhesus macaque model does not represent the severe disease observed in some patients with COVID-19, our data support the early initiation of remdesivir treatment in patients with COVID-19 to prevent progression to pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca mulatta/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Disease Progression , Drug Resistance, Viral , Female , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Prevention , Time Factors , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
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