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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319297

ABSTRACT

Following severe adverse reactions in patients vaccinated with the AstraZeneca ChadOx1 (Chad) vaccine, European health authorities have recommended that patients under the age of 55 who received one dose of Chad vaccine receive a second dose of Pfizer BNT162b2 (BNT) vaccine as a booster. However, the effectiveness and the immunogenicity of this vaccination regimen have not been formally tested. Here, we show that the heterologous Chad/BNT combination confers better protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection than the homologous BNT/BNT combination in a population of health care workers. To understand the underlying mechanism, we monitored in a longitudinal way the anti-spike immunity conferred by each vaccinal combination. Both combinations induced strong anti-spike antibody responses after boost in all vaccinated individuals. However, sera from heterologous vaccinated individuals displayed a stronger neutralizing activity, regardless of the SARS-CoV-2 variant analyzed, and this was associated with more switched memory RBD-specific B cells with an activated phenotype and less IgA. The Chad vaccine induced a stronger T cell response than the BNT vaccine after the priming dose, and the reciprocal was true for the IgG response, which could explain the complementarity of both vaccines when used in an heterologous setting. This strongly protective vaccination regimen could be therefore particularly suitable for immunocompromised individuals.

2.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(1): 14-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487524

ABSTRACT

Although there are several reports in the literature of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, few SARS-CoV-2 sequences from infected cats have been published. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 infection was evaluated in two cats by clinical observation, molecular biology (qPCR and NGS), and serology (microsphere immunoassay and seroneutralization). Following the observation of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in two cats, infection status was confirmed by RT-qPCR and, in one cat, serological analysis for antibodies against N-protein and S-protein, as well as neutralizing antibodies. Comparative analysis of five SARS-CoV-2 sequence fragments obtained from one of the cats showed that this infection was not with one of the three recently emerged variants of SARS-CoV-2. This study provides additional information on the clinical, molecular, and serological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , France/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nature ; 600(7890): 701-706, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483135

ABSTRACT

Following severe adverse reactions to the AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine1,2, European health authorities recommended that patients under the age of 55 years who received one dose of ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 receive a second dose of the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine as a booster. However, the effectiveness and the immunogenicity of this vaccination regimen have not been formally tested. Here we show that the heterologous ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 combination confers better protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than the homologous BNT162b2 and BNT162b2 combination in a real-world observational study of healthcare workers (n = 13,121). To understand the underlying mechanism, we conducted a longitudinal survey of the anti-spike immunity conferred by each vaccine combination. Both combinations induced strong anti-spike antibody responses, but sera from heterologous vaccinated individuals displayed a stronger neutralizing activity regardless of the SARS-CoV-2 variant. This enhanced neutralizing potential correlated with increased frequencies of switched and activated memory B cells that recognize the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain. The ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine induced a weaker IgG response but a stronger T cell response than the BNT162b2 vaccine after the priming dose, which could explain the complementarity of both vaccines when used in combination. The heterologous vaccination regimen could therefore be particularly suitable for immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , /immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Incidence , Male , /immunology , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390790

ABSTRACT

Despite the probable zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, only limited research efforts have been made to understand the role of companion animals in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. According to recent serological prevalence studies, human-to-companion animal transmission is quite frequent, which led us to consider that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animal to human, albeit negligible in the present context, may have been underestimated. In this study, we provide the results of a prospective survey that was conducted to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 isolation rate by qRT-PCR in dogs and cats with different exposure risks and clinical statuses. From April 2020 to April 2021, we analyzed 367 samples and investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using qRT-PCR. Only four animals tested positive, all of them being cats. Three cats were asymptomatic and one presented a coryza-like syndrome. We describe in detail the infection in two cats and the associated clinical characteristics. Importantly, we obtained SARS-CoV-2 genomes from one infected animal and characterized them as Alpha variants. This represents the first identification of the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an infected animal in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pets/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virus Shedding
5.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100111, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066049

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a ß-coronavirus, is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Like for other coronaviruses, its particles are composed of four structural proteins: spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleoprotein (N) proteins. The involvement of each of these proteins and their interactions are critical for assembly and production of ß-coronavirus particles. Here, we sought to characterize the interplay of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins during the viral assembly process. By combining biochemical and imaging assays in infected versus transfected cells, we show that E and M regulate intracellular trafficking of S as well as its intracellular processing. Indeed, the imaging data reveal that S is relocalized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or Golgi compartments upon coexpression of E or M, as observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, which prevents syncytia formation. We show that a C-terminal retrieval motif in the cytoplasmic tail of S is required for its M-mediated retention in the ERGIC, whereas E induces S retention by modulating the cell secretory pathway. We also highlight that E and M induce a specific maturation of N-glycosylation of S, independently of the regulation of its localization, with a profile that is observed both in infected cells and in purified viral particles. Finally, we show that E, M, and N are required for optimal production of virus-like-particles. Altogether, these results highlight how E and M proteins may influence the properties of S proteins and promote the assembly of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virion/growth & development , Virus Assembly/physiology , Animals , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Biomimetic Materials/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Gene Expression , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/ultrastructure , Golgi Apparatus/virology , HEK293 Cells , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Hepatocytes/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/physiology
6.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(2): 318-327, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060623

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune responses elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection is critical in terms of protection against reinfection and, thus, for public health policy and vaccine development for COVID-19. In this study, using either live SARS-CoV-2 particles or retroviruses pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 S viral surface protein (Spike), we studied the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response in serum samples from a cohort of 140 SARS-CoV-2 qPCR-confirmed infections, including patients with mild symptoms and also more severe forms, including those that required intensive care. We show that nAb titers correlated strongly with disease severity and with anti-spike IgG levels. Indeed, patients from intensive care units exhibited high nAb titers; conversely, patients with milder disease symptoms had heterogeneous nAb titers, and asymptomatic or exclusive outpatient-care patients had no or low nAbs. We found that nAb activity in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients displayed a relatively rapid decline after recovery compared to individuals infected with other coronaviruses. Moreover, we found an absence of cross-neutralization between endemic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2, indicating that previous infection by human coronaviruses may not generate protective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we found that the D614G mutation in the spike protein, which has recently been identified as the current major variant in Europe, does not allow neutralization escape. Altogether, our results contribute to our understanding of the immune correlates of SARS-CoV-2-induced disease, and rapid evaluation of the role of the humoral response in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(2): 318-327, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012680

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune responses elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection is critical in terms of protection against reinfection and, thus, for public health policy and vaccine development for COVID-19. In this study, using either live SARS-CoV-2 particles or retroviruses pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 S viral surface protein (Spike), we studied the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response in serum samples from a cohort of 140 SARS-CoV-2 qPCR-confirmed infections, including patients with mild symptoms and also more severe forms, including those that required intensive care. We show that nAb titers correlated strongly with disease severity and with anti-spike IgG levels. Indeed, patients from intensive care units exhibited high nAb titers; conversely, patients with milder disease symptoms had heterogeneous nAb titers, and asymptomatic or exclusive outpatient-care patients had no or low nAbs. We found that nAb activity in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients displayed a relatively rapid decline after recovery compared to individuals infected with other coronaviruses. Moreover, we found an absence of cross-neutralization between endemic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2, indicating that previous infection by human coronaviruses may not generate protective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we found that the D614G mutation in the spike protein, which has recently been identified as the current major variant in Europe, does not allow neutralization escape. Altogether, our results contribute to our understanding of the immune correlates of SARS-CoV-2-induced disease, and rapid evaluation of the role of the humoral response in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
One Health ; 11: 100192, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907097

ABSTRACT

In a survey of household cats and dogs of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients, we found a high seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, ranging from 21% to 53%, depending on the positivity criteria chosen. Seropositivity was significantly greater among pets from COVID-19+ households compared to those with owners of unknown status. Our results highlight the potential role of pets in the spread of the epidemic.

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