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2.
Gastro Hep Adv ; 1(2): 194-209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has overwhelmed the treatment capacity of the health care systems during the highest viral diffusion rate. Patients reaching the emergency department had to be either hospitalized (inpatients) or discharged (outpatients). Still, the decision was taken based on the individual assessment of the actual clinical condition, without specific biomarkers to predict future improvement or deterioration, and discharged patients often returned to the hospital for aggravation of their condition. Here, we have developed a new combined approach of omics to identify factors that could distinguish coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) inpatients from outpatients. METHODS: Saliva and blood samples were collected over the course of two observational cohort studies. By using machine learning approaches, we compared salivary metabolome of 50 COVID-19 patients with that of 270 healthy individuals having previously been exposed or not to SARS-CoV-2. We then correlated the salivary metabolites that allowed separating COVID-19 inpatients from outpatients with serum biomarkers and salivary microbiota taxa differentially represented in the two groups of patients. RESULTS: We identified nine salivary metabolites that allowed assessing the need of hospitalization. When combined with serum biomarkers, just two salivary metabolites (myo-inositol and 2-pyrrolidineacetic acid) and one serum protein, chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1), were sufficient to separate inpatients from outpatients completely and correlated with modulated microbiota taxa. In particular, we found Corynebacterium 1 to be overrepresented in inpatients, whereas Actinomycetaceae F0332, Candidatus Saccharimonas, and Haemophilus were all underrepresented in the hospitalized population. CONCLUSION: This is a proof of concept that a combined omic analysis can be used to stratify patients independently from COVID-19.

3.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 275-286, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661973

ABSTRACT

The humoral arm of innate immunity includes diverse molecules with antibody-like functions, some of which serve as disease severity biomarkers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Of 12 PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively. MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL2 locus were associated with disease severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID-19, a finding with translational implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(4): 817-836, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340268

ABSTRACT

The MS4A gene family encodes 18 tetraspanin-like proteins, most of which with unknown function. MS4A1 (CD20), MS4A2 (FcεRIß), MS4A3 (HTm4), and MS4A4A play important roles in immunity, whereas expression and function of other members of the family are unknown. The present investigation was designed to obtain an expression fingerprint of MS4A family members, using bioinformatics analysis of public databases, RT-PCR, and protein analysis when possible. MS4A3, MS4A4A, MS4A4E, MS4A6A, MS4A7, and MS4A14 were expressed by myeloid cells. MS4A6A and MS4A14 were expressed in circulating monocytes and decreased during monocyte-to-Mϕ differentiation in parallel with an increase in MS4A4A expression. Analysis of gene expression regulation revealed a strong induction of MS4A4A, MS4A6A, MS4A7, and MS4A4E by glucocorticoid hormones. Consistently with in vitro findings, MS4A4A and MS4A7 were expressed in tissue Mϕs from COVID-19 and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Interestingly, MS4A3, selectively expressed in myeloid precursors, was found to be a marker of immature circulating neutrophils, a cellular population associated to COVID-19 severe disease. The results reported here show that members of the MS4A family are differentially expressed and regulated during myelomonocytic differentiation, and call for assessment of their functional role and value as therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , Antigens, CD20 , Family , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Monocytes/metabolism
8.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 19-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065905

ABSTRACT

Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of humoral innate immunity, involved in resistance to selected pathogens and in the regulation of inflammation1-3. The present study was designed to assess the presence and significance of PTX3 in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)4-7. RNA-sequencing analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, single-cell bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemistry of lung autopsy samples revealed that myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells express high levels of PTX3 in patients with COVID-19. Increased plasma concentrations of PTX3 were detected in 96 patients with COVID-19. PTX3 emerged as a strong independent predictor of 28-d mortality in multivariable analysis, better than conventional markers of inflammation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The prognostic significance of PTX3 abundance for mortality was confirmed in a second independent cohort (54 patients). Thus, circulating and lung myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells are a major source of PTX3, and PTX3 plasma concentration can serve as an independent strong prognostic indicator of short-term mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Macrophages/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serum Amyloid P-Component/genetics , A549 Cells , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism
9.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 19-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933698

ABSTRACT

Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of humoral innate immunity, involved in resistance to selected pathogens and in the regulation of inflammation1-3. The present study was designed to assess the presence and significance of PTX3 in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)4-7. RNA-sequencing analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, single-cell bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemistry of lung autopsy samples revealed that myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells express high levels of PTX3 in patients with COVID-19. Increased plasma concentrations of PTX3 were detected in 96 patients with COVID-19. PTX3 emerged as a strong independent predictor of 28-d mortality in multivariable analysis, better than conventional markers of inflammation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The prognostic significance of PTX3 abundance for mortality was confirmed in a second independent cohort (54 patients). Thus, circulating and lung myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells are a major source of PTX3, and PTX3 plasma concentration can serve as an independent strong prognostic indicator of short-term mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Macrophages/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serum Amyloid P-Component/genetics , A549 Cells , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism
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