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1.
Minerva Surg ; 77(2): 171-179, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789849

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The recent COrona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a massive disruption of surgical activity and after a year from its first outbreak surgeons still struggle to keep their regular activity coexisting with the virus exhausting requests of healthcare resources. The aim of this paper is to offer a comprehensive overview of the most important recommendations by the International Guidelines about general surgery, and possibly to invite building common shared guidelines to preserve the potential to provide surgical assistance despite the pandemic. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were searched. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The searches revealed a total of 18579 articles published up to the end of February 2021. Five articles published between March and May 2020, were included in the present study: Guidelines from The European Society of Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ESTES), The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) and The European Association for Endoscopic Surgeons (EAES), The Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia (ELSA), The European Hernia Society (EHS) and The International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IOS-IBD). CONCLUSIONS: In the likely scenario that the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will become an endemic chronic problem, we should not be forced to choose between COVID-19 or surgery in the future and find a way to make both coexisting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Surgeons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320808

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine on a national basis the surgical activity regarding appendectomies during the first Italian wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Major surgical societies advised using non-operative management of appendicitis and suggested against laparoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Multicenter, observational study investigating the outcomes of patients undergoing appendectomy in the two months of March-April 2019 vs. March-April 2020. The primary outcome was the number of appendectomies performed during each of the two months, classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) score. Secondary outcomes were the type of surgical technique employed (laparoscopic vs. open), and the complication rates. Results: 1541 patients with acute appendicitis underwent surgery during the two study periods. 1337 (86.8%) patients met the study inclusion criteria. 546 (40.8%) patients underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in 2020 and 791 (59.8%) in 2019. Patients with complicated appendicitis operated in 2019 were 76 (9.6%) vs. 87 (15.9%) in 2020 (p = 0.001). An increase in the number of post-operative complications was found in 2020 (15.9%) compared to 2019 (9.6%) (p < 0.001). The following determinants increased the likelihood of complication occurrence: undergoing surgery during 2020 (+ 67%), having a unit AAST (+ 26%) increase, having waited for surgery > 24 h (+ 58%), being the surgeon aged > 40 years (+ 47%), undergoing open surgery (+ 112%) and being converted to open surgery (+ 166%). Conclusions: In Italian hospitals, in March and April 2020, the number of appendectomies has drastically dropped. Patients undergoing surgery during the first pandemic wave were more frequently affected by more severe appendicitis than the previous year's timeframe and a higher complication rate was reported. Trial registration : ResearchRegistry ID 5789.

3.
Updates Surg ; 73(6): 2205-2213, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293469

ABSTRACT

Major surgical societies advised using non-operative management of appendicitis and suggested against laparoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic. The hypothesis is that a significant reduction in the number of emergent appendectomies was observed during the pandemic, restricted to complex cases. The study aimed to analyse emergent surgical appendectomies during pandemic on a national basis and compare it to the same period of the previous year. This is a multicentre, retrospective, observational study investigating the outcomes of patients undergoing emergent appendectomy in March-April 2019 vs March-April 2020. The primary outcome was the number of appendectomies performed, classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) score. Secondary outcomes were the type of surgical technique employed (laparoscopic vs open) and the complication rates. One thousand five hundred forty one patients with acute appendicitis underwent surgery during the two study periods. 1337 (86.8%) patients met the inclusion criteria: 546 (40.8%) patients underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in 2020 and 791 (59.2%) in 2019. According to AAST, patients with complicated appendicitis operated in 2019 were 30.3% vs 39.9% in 2020 (p = 0.001). We observed an increase in the number of post-operative complications in 2020 (15.9%) compared to 2019 (9.6%) (p < 0.001). The following determinants increased the likelihood of complication occurrence: undergoing surgery during 2020 (+ 67%), the increase of a unit in the AAST score (+ 26%), surgery performed > 24 h after admission (+ 58%), open surgery (+ 112%) and conversion to open surgery (+ 166%). In Italian hospitals, in March and April 2020, the number of appendectomies has drastically dropped. During the first pandemic wave, patients undergoing surgery were more frequently affected by more severe appendicitis than the previous year's timeframe and experienced a higher number of complications. Trial registration number and date: Research Registry ID 5789, May 7th, 2020.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Cohort Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1775-1786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274974

ABSTRACT

Several regimens of oral and intravenous antibiotics (OIVA) have been proposed with contradicting results, and the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is still controversial. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in elective colorectal surgery. In a multicentre trial, we randomized patients undergoing elective colorectal resection surgery, comparing the effectiveness of OIVA versus intravenous antibiotics (IVA) regimens to prevent SSI as the primary outcome (NCT04438655). In addition to intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic, patients in the OIVA group received Oral Neomycin and Bacitracin 24 h before surgery. MBP was administered according to local habits which were not changed for the study. The trial was terminated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many centers failed to participate as well as the pandemic changed the rules for engaging patients. Two-hundred and four patients were enrolled (100 in the OIVA and 104 in the IVA group); 3 SSIs (3.4%) were registered in the OIVA and 14 (14.4%) in the IVA group (p = 0.010). No difference was observed in terms of anastomotic leak. Multivariable analysis indicated that OIVA reduced the rate of SSI (OR 0.21 / 95% CI 0.06-0.78 / p = 0.019), while BMI is a risk factor of SSI (OR 1.15 / 95% CI 1.01-1.30 p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis indicated that 0/22 patients who underwent OIVA/MBP + vs 13/77 IVA/MBP- experienced an SSI (p = 0.037). The early termination of the study prevents any conclusion regarding the interpretation of the data. Nonetheless, Oral Neomycin/Bacitracin and intravenous beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors seem to reduce SSI after colorectal resections, although not affecting the anastomotic leak in this trial. The role of MBP requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacitracin , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neomycin , Pandemics , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
5.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(3): e38-e45, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether frailty and multimorbidity predict in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 beyond chronological age. METHOD: A total of 165 patients admitted from March 8th to April 17th, 2020, with COVID-19 in an acute geriatric ward in Italy were included. Predisease frailty was assessed with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Multimorbidity was defined as the co-occurrence of ≥2 diseases in the same patient. The hazard ratio (HR) of in-hospital mortality as a function of CFS score and number of chronic diseases in the whole population and in those aged 70+ years were calculated. RESULTS: Among the 165 patients, 112 were discharged, 11 were transferred to intensive care units, and 42 died. Patients who died were older (81.0 vs 65.2 years, p < .001), more frequently multimorbid (97.6 vs 52.8%; p < .001), and more likely frail (37.5 vs 4.1%; p < .001). Less than 2.0% of patients without multimorbidity and frailty, 28% of those with multimorbidity only, and 75% of those with both multimorbidity and frailty died. Each unitary increment in the CFS was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death in the whole sample (HR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.05-1.62) and in patients aged 70+ years (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04-1.62), whereas the number of chronic diseases was not significantly associated with higher risk of death. The CFS addition to age and sex increased mortality prediction by 9.4% in those aged 70+ years. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty identifies patients with COVID-19 at risk of in-hospital death independently of age. Multimorbidity contributes to prognosis because of the very low probability of death in its absence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 38, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574739

ABSTRACT

Following the spread of the infection from the new SARS-CoV2 coronavirus in March 2020, several surgical societies have released their recommendations to manage the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the daily clinical practice. The recommendations on emergency surgery have fueled a debate among surgeons on an international level.We maintain that laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis, even in the COVID-19 era. Moreover, since laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not more likely to spread the COVID-19 infection than open cholecystectomy, it must be organized in such a way as to be carried out safely even in the present situation, to guarantee the patient with the best outcomes that minimally invasive surgery has shown to have.


Subject(s)
Cholecystectomy/standards , Cholecystitis, Acute/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cholecystectomy/methods , Cholecystitis, Acute/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
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