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1.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28819, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235863

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the midterm sequelae in COVID-19 and their association with corticosteroids use are needed. Between March and July 2020, we evaluated 1227 survivors of COVID-19, 3 months posthospitalization, of whom 213 had received corticosteroids within 7 days of admission. Main outcome was any midterm sequelae (oxygen therapy, shortness of breath, one major clinical sign, two minor clinical signs or three minor symptoms). Association between corticosteroids use and midterm sequelae was assessed using inverse propensity-score weighting models. Our sample included 753 (61%) male patients, and 512 (42%) were older than 65 years. We found a higher rate of sequelae among users than nonusers of corticosteroids (42% vs. 35%, odds ratio [OR] 1.40 [1.16-1.69]). Midterm sequelae were more frequent in users of low-dose corticosteroids than nonusers (64% vs. 51%, OR 1.60 [1.10-2.32]), whereas no association between higher doses (≥20 mg/day equivalent of dexamethasone) and sequelae was evidenced (OR 0.95 [0.56-1.61]). Higher risk of sequelae with corticosteroids use was observed among subjects with propensity score below the 90th percentile. Our study suggest that corticosteroids use during hospitalization for COVID-19 is associated with higher risk of midterm sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Disease Progression , Survivors
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 43(5): 882-893, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262994

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Following a severe COVID-19 infection, a proportion of individuals develop prolonged symptoms. We investigated the immunological dysfunction that underlies the persistence of symptoms months after the resolution of acute COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed cytokines, cell phenotypes, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific and neutralizing antibodies, and whole blood gene expression profiles in convalescent severe COVID-19 patients 1, 3, and 6 months following hospital discharge. RESULTS: We observed persistent abnormalities until month 6 marked by (i) high serum levels of monocyte/macrophage and endothelial activation markers, chemotaxis, and hematopoietic cytokines; (ii) a high frequency of central memory CD4+ and effector CD8+ T cells; (iii) a decrease in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike and neutralizing antibodies; and (iv) an upregulation of genes related to platelet, neutrophil activation, erythrocytes, myeloid cell differentiation, and RUNX1 signaling. We identified a "core gene signature" associated with a history of thrombotic events, with upregulation of a set of genes involved in neutrophil activation, platelet, hematopoiesis, and blood coagulation. CONCLUSION: The lack of restoration of gene expression to a normal profile after up to 6 months of follow-up, even in asymptomatic patients who experienced severe COVID-19, signals the need to carefully extend their clinical follow-up and propose preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Neutrophil Activation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Thrombosis/etiology , Cytokines , Antibodies, Viral
4.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2687554.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The respective benefits of high and low doses of dexamethasone (DXM) in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) and acute respiratory failure (ARF) are controversial, with two large triple-blind RCTs reaching opposite conclusions. In the COVIDICUS trial, we argued against any additional benefit of high-dose dexamethasone (DXM20). We aimed to explore whether some specific patient phenotypes could benefit from DXM20 compared to the standard of care dose of DXM (DXMSoC). Methods: We performed a post hoc exploratory Bayesian analysis of 473 patients who received either DXM6 or DXM20 in the COVIDICUS trial. The primary outcome was the 60-day mortality rate of DXM20 over DXMSoC, with the treatment effect measured on the posterior mean of relative risk (RR) estimated using a beta-binomial model with 95% credibility intervals (95% CrI). Bayesian measures of interaction quantified the probability of interaction (Pr Interact) that the RR of 60-day death differed across the subsets by 20%. Results: Overall, the posterior mean RR of Day 60 mortality was 1.06 with a 95% credible confidence interval (0.77 to 1.44) and a posterior probability of benefit and harm of 27.0% and 50.5%, respectively. There was some evidence of treatment by subset interaction according to age, with the benefit increasing in patients aged below 70 years (RR=0.74, 95% CrI 0.41-1.22) compared to those aged above 70 (RR=1.12, 95% CrI 0.77 to 1.60) (Pr Interact, 77%), when the time since symptoms onset was lower than 7 days (RR=0.66, 95% CrI 0. 36 to 1.09) compared to 7 days or more (RR=1.15, 95% CrI 0.76 to 1.67) (Pr Interact, 90%) and in patients receiving remdesivir (RR=0.62, 95% CrI 0.29 to 1.14) compared to those who did not (RR=1.12, 95% CrI 0.78 to 1.58) (Pr Interact, 88%). Conclusions: In this exploratory post hoc Bayesian analysis, compared with standard-of-care DXM, high-dose DXM may benefit patients aged less than 70 years with severe ARF that occurred less than 7 days after symptoms onset. The use of remdesivir may also favour the benefit of DXM20. Further analysis is needed to confirm these findings. Trial registration: NCT04344730, date of registration April 14, 2020 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04344730?term=NCT04344730&draw=2&rank=1); EudraCT: 2020-001457-43 (https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2020-001457-43).

6.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 300, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The composition of the digestive microbiota may be associated with outcome and infections in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The dominance by opportunistic pathogens (such as Enterococcus) has been associated with death. However, whether this association remains all throughout the hospitalization are lacking. METHODS: We performed a single-center observational prospective cohort study in critically ill patients admitted with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Oropharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected at admission and then twice weekly until discharge or death. Quantitative cultures for opportunistic pathogens were performed on oropharyngeal and rectal swabs. The composition of the intestinal microbiota was assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Oropharyngeal and intestinal concentrations of opportunistic pathogens, intestinal richness and diversity were entered into a multivariable Cox model as time-dependent covariates. The primary outcome was death at day 90. RESULTS: From March to September 2020, 95 patients (765 samples) were included. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2 (SAPS 2) at admission was 33 [24; 50] and a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA score) at 6 [4; 8]. Day 90 all-cause mortality was 44.2% (42/95). We observed that the oropharyngeal and rectal concentrations of Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. were associated with a higher risk of death. This association remained significant after adjustment for prognostic covariates (age, chronic disease, daily antimicrobial agent use and daily SOFA score). A one-log increase in Enterococcus spp., S. aureus and Candida spp. in oropharyngeal or rectal swabs was associated with a 17% or greater increase in the risk of death. CONCLUSION: We found that elevated oropharyngeal/intestinal Enterococcus spp. S. aureus and Candida spp. concentrations, assessed by culture, are associated with mortality, independent of age, organ failure, and antibiotic therapy, opening prospects for simple and inexpensive microbiota-based markers for the prognosis of critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Candida , Critical Illness , DNA, Ribosomal , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus
7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 88, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Augmented renal clearance (ARC) remains poorly evaluated in ICU. The objective of this study is to provide a full description of ARC in ICU including prevalence, evolution profile, risk factors and outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center, observational study. All the patients older than 18 years admitted for the first time in Medical ICU, Bichat, University Hospital, APHP, France, between January 1, 2017, and November 31, 2020 and included into the Outcomerea database with an ICU length of stay longer than 72 h were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease were excluded. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated each day during ICU stay using the measured creatinine renal clearance (CrCl). Augmented renal clearance (ARC) was defined as a 24 h CrCl greater than 130 ml/min/m2. RESULTS: 312 patients were included, with a median age of 62.7 years [51.4; 71.8], 106(31.9%) had chronic cardiovascular disease. The main reason for admission was acute respiratory failure (184(59%)) and 196(62.8%) patients had SARS-COV2. The median value for SAPS II score was 32[24; 42.5]; 146(44%) and 154(46.4%) patients were under vasopressors and invasive mechanical ventilation, respectively. The overall prevalence of ARC was 24.6% with a peak prevalence on Day 5 of ICU stay. The risk factors for the occurrence of ARC were young age and absence of cardiovascular comorbidities. The persistence of ARC during more than 10% of the time spent in ICU was significantly associated with a lower risk of death at Day 30. CONCLUSION: ARC is a frequent phenomenon in the ICU with an increased incidence during the first week of ICU stay. Further studies are needed to assess its impact on patient prognosis.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005917

ABSTRACT

Mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) protects against endothelial permeability and has been associated with prognosis in bacterial sepsis. As endothelial dysfunction is central in the pathophysiology of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, we sought to evaluate MR-proADM both as a prognostic biomarker and as a marker of bacterial superinfection. Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were prospectively included and serum was bio-banked on days 1, 3, and 7. MR-proADM levels were measured blindly from clinical outcomes in batches at the end of follow-up. Among the 135 patients included between April 2020 and May 2021, 46 (34.1%) had died at day 60. MR-proADM levels on days 1, 3, and 7 were significantly higher in day-60 non-survivors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.744, p < 0.001) of day-1 MR-proADM compared favorably with the AUC ROC curve of day-1 procalcitonin (0.691, p < 0.001). Serial MR-proADM measurements on days 3 and 7 may add prognostic information. After adjusting for CRP, LDH, and lymphocyte values, day-1 MR-proADM remained significantly associated with day-60 mortality. MR-proADM concentrations were significantly higher in patients with respiratory superinfections (on days 3 and 7) and bloodstream infections (on days 1, 3, and 7) than in patients without infection. Our results suggest that MR-proADM is a good predictor of outcome in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and could be a useful tool to assess bacterial superinfection in COVID-19 patients.

9.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(9): 906-916, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919150

ABSTRACT

Importance: The benefit of high-dose dexamethasone and oxygenation strategies vs standard of care for patients with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) caused by COVID-19 pneumonia is debated. Objectives: To assess the benefit of high-dose dexamethasone compared with standard of care dexamethasone, and to assess the benefit of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNo2) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with oxygen support standard of care (o2SC). Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 19 intensive care units (ICUs) in France from April 2020 to January 2021. Eligible patients were consecutive ICU-admitted adults with COVID-19 AHRF. Randomization used a 2 × 3 factorial design for dexamethasone and oxygenation strategies; patients not eligible for at least 1 oxygenation strategy and/or already receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) were only randomized for dexamethasone. All patients were followed-up for 60 days. Data were analyzed from May 26 to July 31, 2021. Interventions: Patients received standard dexamethasone (dexamethasone-phosphate 6 mg/d for 10 days [or placebo prior to RECOVERY trial results communication]) or high-dose dexamethasone (dexamethasone-phosphate 20 mg/d on days 1-5 then 10 mg/d on days 6-10). Those not requiring IMV were additionally randomized to o2SC, CPAP, or HFNo2. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were time to all-cause mortality, assessed at day 60, for the dexamethasone interventions, and time to IMV requirement, assessed at day 28, for the oxygenation interventions. Differences between intervention groups were calculated using proportional Cox models and expressed as hazard ratios (HRs). Results: Among 841 screened patients, 546 patients (median [IQR] age, 67.4 [59.3-73.1] years; 414 [75.8%] men) were randomized between standard dexamethasone (276 patients, including 37 patients who received placebo) or high-dose dexamethasone (270 patients). Of these, 333 patients were randomized among o2SC (109 patients, including 56 receiving standard dexamethasone), CPAP (109 patients, including 57 receiving standard dexamethasone), and HFNo2 (115 patients, including 56 receiving standard dexamethasone). There was no difference in 60-day mortality between standard and high-dose dexamethasone groups (HR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.69-1.33]; P = .79). There was no significant difference for the cumulative incidence of IMV criteria at day 28 among o2 support groups (o2SC vs CPAP: HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.71-1.63]; o2SC vs HFNo2: HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.69-1.55]) or 60-day mortality (o2SC vs CPAP: HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.58-1.61; o2SC vs HFNo2: HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.53-1.47]). Interactions between interventions were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial among ICU patients with COVID-19-related AHRF, high-dose dexamethasone did not significantly improve 60-day survival. The oxygenation strategies in patients who were not initially receiving IMV did not significantly modify 28-day risk of IMV requirement. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04344730; EudraCT: 2020-001457-43.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Phosphates , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 70: 103227, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828574

ABSTRACT

Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at high risk for healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) due to the high prevalence of invasive procedures and devices, induced immunosuppression, comorbidity, frailty and increased age. Over the past decade we have seen a successful reduction in the incidence of HAI related to invasive procedures and devices. However, the rate of ICU-acquired infections remains high. Within this context, the ongoing emergence of new pathogens, further complicates treatment and threatens patient outcomes. Additionally, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic highlighted the challenge that an emerging pathogen provides in adapting prevention measures regarding both the risk of exposure to caregivers and the need to maintain quality of care. ICU nurses hold a special place in the prevention and management of HAI as they are involved in basic hygienic care, steering and implementing quality improvement initiatives, correct microbiological sampling, and aspects antibiotic stewardship. The emergence of more sensitive microbiological techniques and our increased knowledge about interactions between critically ill patients and their microbiota are leading us to rethink how we define HAIs and best strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent these infections in the ICU. This multidisciplinary expert review, focused on the ICU setting, will summarise the recent epidemiology of ICU-HAI, discuss the place of modern microbiological techniques in their diagnosis, review operational and epidemiological definitions and redefine the place of several controversial preventive measures including antimicrobial-impregnated medical devices, chlorhexidine-impregnated washcloths, catheter dressings and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes. Finally, general guidance is suggested that may reduce HAI incidence and especially outbreaks in ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Adult , Chlorhexidine , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 1(4): 100041, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734699

ABSTRACT

Background: The systemic antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mucosal responses in the upper airways, the site of initial SARS-CoV-2 replication. Methods: The IgG and IgA antibody responses were analysed in plasma and nasopharyngeal swabs from the first four confirmed COVID-19 patients in France. Two were pauci-symptomatic while two developed severe disease. We characterized their antibody profiles by using an in-house ELISA to detect antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein and Spike. Results: Anti-N IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in the NPS of severe patients only. The levels of antibodies in the plasma markedly differed amongst the patients. The most distinctive features are a strong anti-N IgG response in the severe patient who recovered, and a high anti-N IgA response specifically detected in the fatal case of COVID-19. Conclusions: Anti-N IgG and IgA antibodies are detected in NPS only for severe patients, with levels related to serological antibodies. The severe patients showed different antibody profiles in the plasma, notably regarding the IgA and IgG response to the N antigen, that may reflect different disease outcome. By contrast, pauci-symptomatic patients did not exhibit any mucosal antibodies in NSP, which is associated with a low or absent serological response against both N and S.

12.
Crit Care Med ; 50(8): e674-e682, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe 3-6-month neurologic outcomes of survivors of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, invasively ventilated in the ICU. DESIGN: A bicentric prospective study during the two first waves of the pandemic (March to May and September to December, 2020). SETTING: Two academic hospital ICUs, Paris, France. PATIENTS: Adult COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors, invasively ventilated in the ICU, were eligible for a neurologic consultation between 3 and 6 months post ICU discharge. INTERVENTIONS: Follow-up by face-to-face neurologic consultation. MEASURES AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was favorable functional outcome defined by a modified Rankin scale score less than 2, indicating survival with no significant disability. Secondary endpoints included mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score < 26), ICU-acquired weakness (Medical Research Council score < 48), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression score > 7), and posttraumatic stress disorder (posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 score > 30). Of 54 eligible survivors, four non-French-speaking patients were excluded, eight patients were lost-to-follow-up, and one died during follow-up. Forty-one patients were included. Time between ICU discharge and neurologic consultation was 3.8 months (3.6-5.9 mo). A favorable functional outcome was observed in 16 patients (39%) and mild cognitive impairment in 17 of 33 patients tested (52%). ICU-acquired weakness, depression or anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder were reported in six of 37 cases (16%), eight of 31 cases (26%), and two of 27 cases (7%), respectively. Twenty-nine patients (74%) required rehabilitation (motor, cognitive, or psychologic). ICU and hospital lengths of stay, tracheostomy, and corticosteroids were negatively associated with favorable outcome. By contrast, use of alpha-2 agonists during ICU stay was associated with favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intubation led to slight-to-severe functional disability in about 60% of survivors 4 months after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment, muscle weakness, and psychologic symptoms were frequent. A large multicenter study is warranted to allow identification of modifiable factors for improving long-term outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Survivors/psychology
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 2, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients receiving single lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, worsening of fibrosis of the native lung is usually progressive over time, with no significant effects on gas exchange. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe the cases of two Caucasian male recipients of single lung transplants for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 65 and 62 years of age, who exhibited acute worsening of lung fibrosis after an episode of serious viral infection (cytomegalovirus primo-infection in one case and COVID-19 in the other). In both cases, along with opacification of the native lung over several days, the patients presented acute respiratory failure that required the use of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. Eventually, hypoxemic respiratory failure resolved, but with rapid progression of fibrosis of the native lung. CONCLUSION: We conclude that acute worsening of fibrosis on the native lung secondary to a severe viral infection should be added to the list of potential complications developing on the native lung after single lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Transplantation , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Lung , Male , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 417, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data in the literature about HSV reactivation in COVID-19 patients are scarce, and the association between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality remains to be determined. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections primarily on mortality, and secondarily on hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) and intensive care unit-bloodstream infection (ICU-BSI). METHODS: We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected data and HSV-1 blood and respiratory samples from all critically ill COVID-19 patients in a large reference center who underwent HSV tests. Using multivariable Cox and cause-specific (cs) models, we investigated the association between HSV reactivation and mortality or healthcare-associated infections. RESULTS: Of the 153 COVID-19 patients admitted for ≥ 48 h from Feb-2020 to Feb-2021, 40/153 (26.1%) patients had confirmed HSV-1 reactivation (19/61 (31.1%) with HSV-positive respiratory samples, and 36/146 (24.7%) with HSV-positive blood samples. Day-60 mortality was higher in patients with HSV-1 reactivation (57.5%) versus without (33.6%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for mortality risk factors, HSV-1 reactivation was associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard risk [HR] 2.05; 95% CI 1.16-3.62; p = 0.01). HAP/VAP occurred in 67/153 (43.8%) and ICU-BSI in 42/153 (27.5%) patients. In patients with HSV-1 reactivation, multivariable cause-specific models showed an increased risk of HAP/VAP (csHR 2.38, 95% CI 1.06-5.39, p = 0.037), but not of ICU-BSI. CONCLUSIONS: HSV-1 reactivation in critically ill COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased risk of day-60 mortality and HAP/VAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Pneumonia , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Herpesvirus 1, Human/physiology , Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Risk Assessment
17.
iScience ; 24(7): 102711, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281437

ABSTRACT

The identification of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and high risk of severe disease is a challenge in routine care. We performed cell phenotypic, serum, and RNA sequencing gene expression analyses in severe hospitalized patients (n = 61). Relative to healthy donors, results showed abnormalities of 27 cell populations and an elevation of 42 cytokines, neutrophil chemo-attractants, and inflammatory components in patients. Supervised and unsupervised analyses revealed a high abundance of CD177, a specific neutrophil activation marker, contributing to the clustering of severe patients. Gene abundance correlated with high serum levels of CD177 in severe patients. Higher levels were confirmed in a second cohort and in intensive care unit (ICU) than non-ICU patients (P < 0.001). Longitudinal measurements discriminated between patients with the worst prognosis, leading to death, and those who recovered (P = 0.01). These results highlight neutrophil activation as a hallmark of severe disease and CD177 assessment as a reliable prognostic marker for routine care.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11778, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258598

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated many concerns about cross-contamination risks, particularly in hospital settings and Intensive Care Units (ICU). Virus-laden aerosols produced by infected patients can propagate throughout ventilated rooms and put medical personnel entering them at risk. Experimental results found with a schlieren optical method have shown that the air flows generated by a cough and normal breathing were modified by the oxygenation technique used, especially when using High Flow Nasal Canulae, increasing the shedding of potentially infectious airborne particles. This study also uses a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics model based on a Lattice Boltzmann Method to simulate the air flows as well as the movement of numerous airborne particles produced by a patient's cough within an ICU room under negative pressure. The effects of different mitigation scenarii on the amount of aerosols potentially containing SARS-CoV-2 that are extracted through the ventilation system are investigated. Numerical results indicate that adequate bed orientation and additional air treatment unit positioning can increase by 40% the number of particles extracted and decrease by 25% the amount of particles deposited on surfaces 45s after shedding. This approach could help lay the grounds for a more comprehensive way to tackle contamination risks in hospitals, as the model can be seen as a proof of concept and be adapted to any room configuration.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cough/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aerosols , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Models, Theoretical , Optical Imaging , Ventilation/methods
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1826-1837, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical, virological and safety outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-interferon (IFN)-ß-1a, hydroxychloroquine or remdesivir in comparison to standard of care (control) in coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) inpatients requiring oxygen and/or ventilatory support. METHODS: We conducted a phase III multicentre, open-label, randomized 1:1:1:1:1, adaptive, controlled trial (DisCoVeRy), an add-on to the Solidarity trial (NCT04315948, EudraCT2020-000936-23). The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15, measured by the WHO seven-point ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes included quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory specimens and pharmacokinetic and safety analyses. We report the results for the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms and for the hydroxychloroquine arm, trials of which were stopped prematurely. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 583 participants-lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 145), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a (n = 145), hydroxychloroquine (n = 145), control (n = 148)-among whom 418 (71.7%) were male, the median age was 63 years (IQR 54-71), and 211 (36.2%) had a severe disease. The day-15 clinical status was not improved with the investigational treatments: lopinavir/ritonavir versus control, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.83, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.26, p 0.39), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a versus control, aOR 0.69 (95%CI 0.45-1.04, p 0.08), and hydroxychloroquine versus control, aOR 0.93 (95%CI 0.62-1.41, p 0.75). No significant effect of investigational treatment was observed on SARS-CoV-2 clearance. Trough plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were higher than those expected, while those of hydroxychloroquine were those expected with the dosing regimen. The occurrence of serious adverse events was significantly higher in participants allocated to the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms. CONCLUSION: In adults hospitalized for COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a and hydroxychloroquine improved neither the clinical status at day 15 nor SARS-CoV-2 clearance in respiratory tract specimens.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
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