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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317220

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic in first seven months has led to more than 15 million confirmed infected cases and 600,000 deaths. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19 has proved a great challenge for its ability to spread in asymptomatic stages and a diverse disease spectrum it has generated. This has created a challenge of unimaginable magnitude not only affecting human health and life but also potentially generating a long-lasting socioeconomic impact. Both medical sciences and biomedical research have also been challenged consequently leading to a large number of clinical trials and vaccine initiatives. While known proteins of pathobiological importance are targets for these therapeutic approaches, it is imperative to explore other factors of viral significance. Accessory proteins are one such trait that have diverse roles in coronavirus pathobiology. Here we analyze certain genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein ORF8, predict upon its protein features and review current available literature regarding its function. We have also undertaken review of ORF8 homolog ORF8ab from SARS-CoV with a purpose of developing holistic understanding of these proteins for reason that coronaviruses have been infecting humans repeatedly and might continue to do so. Despite low nucleotide and protein identity and differentiating genome level characteristics, there appears to be significant structural integrity and functional proximity between these proteins pointing towards their high significance. There is further need for comprehensive genomics and structural-functional studies to lead towards definitive conclusions regarding their criticality and that can eventually define their relevance to therapeutics development.

2.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2291-2307, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328677

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antiviral drugs have shown limited effectiveness in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess the effects of a favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine combination on treating moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: An investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, randomized trial at nine hospitals. Eligible patients were adults with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) of ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air or significant clinical symptoms with chest x-ray changes requiring hospital admission. Randomization was in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care (control group) or standard care plus favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine. The primary outcome was time to clinical improvement of two points (from the status at randomization) on a seven-category ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital within 14 days. Analyses were done in an intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: From May 2020 to Jan 2021, 254 patients were enrolled; 129 were assigned to standard of care and 125 to the treatment. The mean age was 52 (± 13) years, and 103 (41%) were women. At randomization, six patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation, 229 (90.15%) were requiring supplemental oxygen only (with or without non-invasive ventilation), and 19 (7.48%) were receiving neither. The time to clinical improvement was not significantly different between the groups: median of 9 days in the treatment group and 7 days in the control group (HR: 0.845; 95% CI 0.617-1.157; p-value = 0.29). The 28-day mortality was not significantly different between the groups (7.63% treatment) vs. (10.32% control); p-value = 0.45. The most prevalent adverse events were headache, elevation in ALT, and the prolonged QTc interval in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: The combination of favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine did not result in a statistically significant clinical benefit in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04392973).

4.
Genomics ; 113(4): 1733-1741, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171554

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced membrane proteins (IFITM) 3 gene variants are known risk factor for severe viral diseases. We examined whether IFITM3 variant may underlie the heterogeneous clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced COVID-19 in large Arab population. We genotyped 880 Saudi patients; 93.8% were PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, encompassing most COVID-19 phenotypes. Mortality at 90 days was 9.1%. IFITM3-SNP, rs12252-G allele was associated with hospital admission (OR = 1.65 [95% CI; 1.01-2.70], P = 0.04]) and mortality (OR = 2.2 [95% CI; 1.16-4.20], P = 0.01). Patients less than 60 years old had a lower survival probability if they harbor this allele (log-rank test P = 0.002). Plasma levels of IFNγ were significantly lower in a subset of patients with AG/GG genotypes than patients with AA genotype (P = 0.00016). Early identification of these individuals at higher risk of death may inform precision public health response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Immun Ageing ; 18(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004341

ABSTRACT

The disease (COVID-19) novel coronavirus pandemic has so far infected millions resulting in the death of over a million people as of Oct 2020. More than 90% of those infected with COVID-19 show mild or no symptoms but the rest of the infected cases show severe symptoms resulting in significant mortality. Age has emerged as a major factor to predict the severity of the disease and mortality rates are significantly higher in elderly patients. Besides, patients with underlying conditions like Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and cancer have an increased risk of severe disease and death due to COVID-19 infection. Obesity has emerged as a novel risk factor for hospitalization and death due to COVID-19. Several independent studies have observed that people with obesity are at a greater risk of severe disease and death due to COVID-19. Here we review the published data related to obesity and overweight to assess the possible risk and outcome in Covid-19 patients based on their body weight. Besides, we explore how the obese host provides a unique microenvironment for disease pathogenesis, resulting in increased severity of the disease and poor outcome.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 904, 2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The selected combination was based on limited evidence clinically and in vitro on the efficacy of the Favipiravir and Hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2. The two medications were listed in many guidelines as treatment options and ongoing trials assessing their efficacy and safety. Thus, we want to prove the clinical effectiveness of the combination as therapy. TRIAL DESIGN: This is an Open label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel therapeutic agents in hospitalized adults diagnosed with COVID-19. It is a multicenter trial that will compare Favipiravir plus Hydroxychloroquine combination (experimental arm) to a control arm. PARTICIPANTS: All study procedures will be conducted in eight centres in Saudia Arabia: King Abdulaziz Medical City National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh. King Abdulaziz Hospital - Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia AlMadina General Hospital, Madnia, Saudi Arabia Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia Imam Abdulrahman Al Faisal Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia King Abdulaziz Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia Imam Abdulrahman Alfaisal Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Inclusion Criteria • Should be at least 18 years of age, • Male or nonpregnant female, • Diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR confirmed SARS-coV-2 viral infection. • Able to sign the consent form and agree to clinical samples collection (or their legal surrogates if subjects are or become unable to make informed decisions).. • Moderate or Severe COVID-19, defined as oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or significant clinical symptoms that require hospital admission. • patients had to be enrolled within 10 days of disease onset. Exclusion Criteria • Patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding. • Will be transferred to a non-study site hospital or discharged from hospital within 72 hours. • Known sensitivity/allergy to hydroxychloroquine or Favipiravir • Current use of hydroxychloroquine for another indication • Prior diagnosis of retinopathy • Prior diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency • Major comorbidities increasing the risk of study drug including: i. Hematologic malignancy, ii. Advanced (stage 4-5) chronic kidney disease or dialysis therapy, iii. Known history of ventricular arrhythmias, iv. Current use of drugs that prolong the QT interval, Severe liver damage (Child-Pugh score ≥ C, AST> 5 times the upper limit), HIV. • The investigator believes that participating in the trial is not in the best interests of the patient, or the investigator considers unsuitable for enrollment (such as unpredictable risks or subject compliance issues). • Clinical prognostic non-survival, palliative care, or in deep coma and no have response to supportive treatment within three hours of admission • Patient with irregular rhythm • Patient with a history of heart attack (myocardial infarction) • Patient with a family history of sudden death from heart attack before the age of 50 • Take other drugs that can cause prolonged QT interval • Patient who is receiving immunosuppressive therapy (cyclosporin) which cannot be switched to another agent or adjusted while using the investigational drug • Gout/history of Gout or hyperuricemia (above the ULN), hereditary xanthinuria or xanthine calculi of the urinary tract. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The treatment intervention would be for a maximum of 10 days from randomization and it would be as follows: Favipiravir for 10 days: Administer 1800 mg (9 tablets) by mouth twice daily for one day, followed by 800mg (4 tablets) twice daily (total days of therapy is 10 days) Hydroxychloroquine for 5 days: (400mg) twice daily on day 1; for days 2-5 (200mg) twice daily. Reference Comparator Therapy: Standard of care is defined as: Treatment that is accepted by medical experts as a proper treatment for Covid-19 disease. Standard care comprised of, as necessary, supplemental oxygen, noninvasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, vasopressor support, renal-replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and antiviral therapy except Favipiravir. Also, it may include intravenous fluids and medications for symptoms relief . MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to an improvement of two points (from the status at randomization) on a seven-category ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital, whichever came first (14 days from Randomization). RANDOMISATION: Eligible participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the combination group (Favipiravir and Hydroxychloroquine) or a control group. The patients will be randomized utilizing Web based data entry System with a stratification based on the centre and the ICU admission. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an Open label study and only the analyst will be blinded during the study conduct. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Under the classical two arm parallel design the total effective sample sizes needed is 472 subjects (236 subjects per group). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 3.1 (dated 11 Aug 2020), and currently recruitment is ongoing. The date recruitment started was May 21, 2020 and the investigators anticipate the trial will finish recruiting by the end of December 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04392973 , 19 May 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Inpatients , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 594, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-818126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Animal models of COVID-19 have been rapidly reported after the start of the pandemic. We aimed to assess whether the newly created models reproduce the full spectrum of human COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, as well as BioRxiv and MedRxiv preprint servers for original research published in English from January 1 to May 20, 2020. We used the search terms (COVID-19) OR (SARS-CoV-2) AND (animal models), (hamsters), (nonhuman primates), (macaques), (rodent), (mice), (rats), (ferrets), (rabbits), (cats), and (dogs). Inclusion criteria were the establishment of animal models of COVID-19 as an endpoint. Other inclusion criteria were assessment of prophylaxis, therapies, or vaccines, using animal models of COVID-19. RESULT: Thirteen peer-reviewed studies and 14 preprints met the inclusion criteria. The animals used were nonhuman primates (n = 13), mice (n = 7), ferrets (n = 4), hamsters (n = 4), and cats (n = 1). All animals supported high viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract associated with mild clinical manifestations, lung pathology, and full recovery. Older animals displayed relatively more severe illness than the younger ones. No animal models developed hypoxemic respiratory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, culminating in death. All species elicited a specific IgG antibodies response to the spike proteins, which were protective against a second exposure. Transient systemic inflammation was observed occasionally in nonhuman primates, hamsters, and mice. Notably, none of the animals unveiled a cytokine storm or coagulopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the animal models of COVID-19 recapitulated mild pattern of human COVID-19 with full recovery phenotype. No severe illness associated with mortality was observed, suggesting a wide gap between COVID-19 in humans and animal models.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Models, Animal , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans
8.
Pathogens ; 9(9)2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725117

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, in the first seven months, has led to more than 15 million confirmed infected cases and 600,000 deaths. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19, has proved to be a great challenge for its ability to spread in asymptomatic stages and the diverse disease spectrum it has generated. This has created a challenge of unimaginable magnitude, not only affecting human health and life but also potentially generating a long-lasting socioeconomic impact. Both medical sciences and biomedical research have also been challenged, consequently leading to a large number of clinical trials and vaccine initiatives. While known proteins of pathobiological importance are targets for these therapeutic approaches, it is imperative to explore other factors of viral significance. Accessory proteins are one such trait that have diverse roles in coronavirus pathobiology. Here, we analyze certain genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein ORF8 and predict its protein features. We have further reviewed current available literature regarding its function and comparatively evaluated these and other features of ORF8 and ORF8ab, its homolog from SARS-CoV. Because coronaviruses have been infecting humans repeatedly and might continue to do so, we therefore expect this study to aid in the development of holistic understanding of these proteins. Despite low nucleotide and protein identity and differentiating genome level characteristics, there appears to be significant structural integrity and functional proximity between these proteins pointing towards their high significance. There is further need for comprehensive genomics and structural-functional studies to lead towards definitive conclusions regarding their criticality and that can eventually define their relevance to therapeutics development.

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