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Ann Neurol ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885378


OBJECTIVE: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) caused by vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare adverse effect of adenovirus-based severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. In March 2021, after autoimmune pathogenesis of VITT was discovered, treatment recommendations were developed. These comprised immunomodulation, non-heparin anticoagulants, and avoidance of platelet transfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to these recommendations and its association with mortality. METHODS: We used data from an international prospective registry of patients with CVT after the adenovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We analyzed possible, probable, or definite VITT-CVT cases included until January 18, 2022. Immunomodulation entailed administration of intravenous immunoglobulins and/or plasmapheresis. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients with VITT-CVT from 71 hospitals in 17 countries were analyzed. Five of 38 (13%), 11 of 24 (46%), and 28 of 37 (76%) of the patients diagnosed in March, April, and from May onward, respectively, were treated in-line with VITT recommendations (p < 0.001). Overall, treatment according to recommendations had no statistically significant influence on mortality (14/44 [32%] vs 29/55 [52%], adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16-1.19). However, patients who received immunomodulation had lower mortality (19/65 [29%] vs 24/34 [70%], adjusted OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06-0.58). Treatment with non-heparin anticoagulants instead of heparins was not associated with lower mortality (17/51 [33%] vs 13/35 [37%], adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.24-2.04). Mortality was also not significantly influenced by platelet transfusion (17/27 [63%] vs 26/72 [36%], adjusted OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 0.74-6.54). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with VITT-CVT, adherence to VITT treatment recommendations improved over time. Immunomodulation seems crucial for reducing mortality of VITT-CVT. ANN NEUROL 2022.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(6): e12572, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384307


We report a case of a 62-year-old man who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with subarachnoid hemorrhage and concomitant thrombocytopenia, which occurred 13 days after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 injection. The patient died in the intensive care unit after heparin infusion and platelet transfusion. The key clinical purpose of this case report is to better understand how to confirm vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). VITT diagnosis was made using 14C-serotonin release and flow cytometry evaluating activation and platelet microvesicles on washed platelets. Four control patients were examined: a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), two patients with thrombotic events without thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or BNT162b2, and a patient with suspected HIT and an excluded diagnosis. We evidenced in the VITT case a high level of IgG anti-platelet factor 4-heparin antibodies associated with a high level of platelet activation in the absence of heparin. Conversely, the functional assays were negative in the patients with thrombosis without thrombocytopenia.