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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8991, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947470

ABSTRACT

Knowledge about contagiousness is key to accurate management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Epidemiological studies suggest that in addition to transmission through droplets, aerogenic SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributes to the spread of infection. However, the presence of virus in exhaled air has not yet been sufficiently demonstrated. In pandemic situations low tech disposable and user-friendly bedside devices are required, while commercially available samplers are unsuitable for application in patients with respiratory distress. We included 49 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and used a disposable modular breath sampler to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in exhaled air samples and compared these to SARS-CoV-2 RNA load of combined nasopharyngeal throat swabs and saliva. Exhaled air sampling using the modular breath sampler has proven feasible in a clinical COVID-19 setting and demonstrated viral detection in 25% of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nasopharynx , Pharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102175, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466927

ABSTRACT

Global travelers, whether tourists or secret agents, are exposed to a smörgåsbord of infectious agents. We hypothesized that agents pre-occupied with espionage and counterterrorism may, at their peril, fail to correctly prioritize travel medicine. To examine our hypothesis, we examined adherence to international travel advice during the 86 international journeys that James Bond was observed to undertake in feature films spanning 1962-2021. Scrutinizing these missions involved ∼3113 min of evening hours per author that could easily have been spent on more pressing societal issues. We uncovered above-average sexual activity, often without sufficient time for an exchange of sexual history, with a remarkably high mortality among Bond's sexual partners (27.1; 95% confidence interval 16.4-40.3). Given how inopportune a bout of diarrhea would be in the midst of world-saving action, it is striking that Bond is seen washing his hands on only two occasions, despite numerous exposures to foodborne pathogens. We hypothesize that his foolhardy courage, sometimes purposefully eliciting life-threatening situations, might even be a consequence of Toxoplasmosis. Bond's approach to vector-borne diseases and neglected tropical diseases is erratic, sometimes following travel advice to the letter, but more often dwelling on the side of complete ignorance. Given the limited time Bond receives to prepare for missions, we urgently ask his employer MI6 to take its responsibility seriously. We only live once.


Subject(s)
Travel Medicine , Travel , Humans , Motion Pictures
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5621, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437680

ABSTRACT

Although serological studies have shown that antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 play an important role in protection against (re)infection, the dynamics of mucosal antibodies during primary infection and their potential impact on viral load and the resolution of disease symptoms remain unclear. During the first pandemic wave, we assessed the longitudinal nasal antibody response in index cases with mild COVID-19 and their household contacts. Nasal and serum antibody responses were analysed for up to nine months. Higher nasal receptor binding domain and spike protein-specific antibody levels at study inclusion were associated with lower viral load. Older age was correlated with more frequent COVID-19 related symptoms. Receptor binding domain and spike protein-specific mucosal antibodies were associated with the resolution of systemic, but not respiratory symptoms. Finally, receptor binding domain and spike protein-specific mucosal antibodies remained elevated up to nine months after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1758-1761, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076799

ABSTRACT

We calculated carbon emissions associated with air travel of 4,834 participants at the 2019 annual conference of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Together, participants traveled a total of 27.7 million miles or 44.6 million kilometers. This equates to 58 return trips to the moon. Estimated carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were 8,646 metric tons or the total weekly carbon footprint of approximately 9,366 average American households. These emissions contribute to climate change and thus may exacerbate many of the global diseases that conference attendees seek to combat. Options to reduce conference travel-associated emissions include 1) alternating in-person and online conferences, 2) offering a hybrid in-person/online conference, and 3) decentralizing the conference with multiple conference venues. Decentralized ASTMH conferences may allow for up to 64% reduction in travel distance and 58% reduction in CO2e emissions. Given the urgency of the climate crisis and the clear association between global warming and global health, ways to reduce carbon emissions should be considered.


Subject(s)
Carbon Footprint , Hygiene , Societies, Scientific/organization & administration , Travel , Tropical Medicine , Climate Change , Humans , United States
6.
Curr Biol ; 30(18): R1014-R1018, 2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703973

ABSTRACT

Recently, a petition was offered to the European Commission calling for an immediate ban on animal testing. Although a Europe-wide moratorium on the use of animals in science is not yet possible, there has been a push by the non-scientific community and politicians for a rapid transition to animal-free innovations. Although there are benefits for both animal welfare and researchers, advances on alternative methods have not progressed enough to be able to replace animal research in the foreseeable future. This trend has led first and foremost to a substantial increase in the administrative burden and hurdles required to make timely advances in research and treatments for human and animal diseases. The current COVID-19 pandemic clearly highlights how much we actually rely on animal research. COVID-19 affects several organs and systems, and the various animal-free alternatives currently available do not come close to this complexity. In this Essay, we therefore argue that the use of animals is essential for the advancement of human and veterinary health.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(1): 106056, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641204

ABSTRACT

The severity of COVID-19 has resulted in a global rush to find the right antiviral treatment to conquer the pandemic and to treat patients. This requires reliable studies to support treatment. In a recently published study by Gautret et al. the authors concluded that hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin reduced viral load. However, this trial has several major methodological issues, including the design, outcome measure and the statistical analyses. In this paper we discuss the background, clinical evidence, pharmacology and methodological issues related to this clinical trial. We understand the rush to release results, however in case conclusions are far reaching the evidence needs to be robust.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Euro Surveill ; 25(16)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108723

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (n = 803) with mild symptoms were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (n = 90 positive) and asked to complete a symptom questionnaire. Anosmia, muscle ache, ocular pain, general malaise, headache, extreme tiredness and fever were associated with positivity. A predictive model based on these symptoms showed moderate discriminative value (sensitivity: 91.2%; specificity: 55.6%). While our models would not justify presumptive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis without molecular confirmation, it can contribute to targeted screening strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Eye Pain/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Health Policy , Humans , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Netherlands , Patient Isolation , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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