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1.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963704

ABSTRACT

A few cases of parkinsonism linked to COVID-19 infection have been reported so far, raising the possibility of a post-viral parkinsonian syndrome. The objective of this review is to summarize the clinical, biological, and neuroimaging features of published cases describing COVID-19-related parkinsonism and to discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms. A comprehensive literature search was performed using NCBI's PubMed database and standardized search terms. Thirteen cases of COVID-19-related parkinsonism were included (7 males; mean age: 51 years ± 14.51, range 31-73). Patients were classified based on the possible mechanisms of post-COVID-19 parkinsonism: extensive inflammation or hypoxic brain injury within the context of encephalopathy (n = 5); unmasking of underlying still non-symptomatic Parkinson's Disease (PD) (n = 5), and structural and functional basal ganglia damage (n = 3). The various clinical scenarios show different outcomes and responses to dopaminergic treatment. Different mechanisms may play a role, including vascular damage, neuroinflammation, SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasive potential, and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on α-synuclein. Our results confirm that the appearance of parkinsonism during or immediately after COVID-19 infection represents a very rare event. Future long-term observational studies are needed to evaluate the possible role of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a trigger for the development of PD in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Parkinson Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Neurol ; 11: 616550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006082

ABSTRACT

Background: The containment measures taken by Italian government authorities during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic caused the interruption of neurological activities of outpatient clinics. Vulnerable patients, as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonic patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS), may have an increased risk of chronic stress related to social restriction measures and may show a potential worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and was based on a structured survey administered during a telephone call. The questionnaire was designed to gather motor and/or psychiatric effects of the lockdown and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiologic information in PD and dystonic patients with a functioning DBS implant. Results: One hundred four patients were included in the study, 90 affected by PD and 14 by dystonia. Forty-nine patients reported a subjective perception of worsening of global neurological symptoms (motor and/or psychiatric) related to the containment measures. In the multivariate analysis, having problems with the DBS device was the only independent predictor of motor worsening [odds ratio (OR) = 3.10 (1.22-7.91), p = 0.018]. Independent predictors of psychiatric worsening were instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score [OR = 0.78 (0.64-0.95), p = 0.012] and problems with DBS [OR = 5.69 (1.95-16.62), p = 0.001]. Only one patient underwent nasopharyngeal swabs, both negative, and no patient received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions: Lockdown restriction measures were associated with subjective worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms in PD and dystonic patients treated with DBS, and they may have exacerbated the burden of neurological disease and increased the chronic stress related to the DBS management.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 581144, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983681

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents a condition of increased vulnerability and frailty for elderly patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Social isolation may worsen the burden of the disease and specifically exacerbate psychiatric symptoms, often comorbid with PD. This study aimed at identifying risk/protective factors associated with subjective worsening of psychiatric symptomatology during the COVID-19 outbreak in a sample of individuals with PD aged 65 years or older. Methods: Patients with PD routinely followed at the outpatient clinic of Gemelli University Hospital, Rome, were assessed for subjective worsening of psychiatric symptoms through a dedicated telephone survey, after Italy COVID-19 lockdown. Patients' medical records were reviewed to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, including lifetime psychiatric symptoms and pharmacological treatment. Results: Overall, 134 individuals were assessed and 101 (75.4%) reported lifetime psychiatric symptoms. Among those, 23 (22.8%) presented with subjective worsening of psychiatric symptomatology during the COVID-19 outbreak. In this group, the most frequent symptom was depression (82.6%), followed by insomnia (52.2%). Subjective worsening of neurological symptoms (Wald = 24.03, df = 1, p = 0.001) and lifetime irritability (Wald = 6.35, df = 1, p = 0.020), together with younger age (Wald = 5.06, df = 1, p = 0.038) and female sex (Wald = 9.07 df = 1, p = 0.007), resulted as specific risk factors for ingravescence of psychiatric presentation. Lifetime pre-existing delusions, having received antipsychotics, and not having received mood stabilizer were also associated with subjective worsening of psychiatric symptomatology due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: Individuals with PD and lifetime history of psychiatric symptoms may be exposed to increased vulnerability to the stressful effect of COVID-19 outbreak. Interventions aimed at reducing irritability and mood instability might have an indirect effect on the health of patients with PD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Front Neurol ; 11: 564, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612883

ABSTRACT

Objective: Neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection have already been reported, but there is insufficient data about the impact of the pandemic on the management of the patients with chronic neurological diseases. We aim to analyze the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and social restriction rules on these fragile patients. Methods: Patients with chronic neurologic diseases routinely followed at the outpatient clinic of Gemelli University Hospital, Rome, were assessed for symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pandemic period, consequences of social restrictions, and neurological disease features, concomitant medical conditions, current medical and disease-specific treatments. Data source: a dedicated telephone survey designed to encompass questions on COVID-19 symptoms and on pandemic effects in chronic neurologic conditions. Results: Overall, 2,167 individuals were analyzed: 63 patients reported contact with COVID-19 positive cases, 41 performed the swab, and 2 symptomatic patients tested positive for COVID-19 (0.09%). One hundred fifty-eight individuals (7%) needed urgent neurological care, deferred due to the pandemic; 641 patients (30%) suspended hospital treatments, physiotherapy or other support interventions; 405 individuals (19%) reported a subjective worsening of neurological symptoms. Conclusions: In our population, the presence of neurological chronic diseases did not increase the prevalence of COVID-19 infection. Nevertheless, the burden of neurological disorders has been worsened by the lockdown.

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