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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792854

ABSTRACT

The threat of foreign animal disease introduction through contaminated animal products, feed ingredients, and wildlife vectors have highlighted the need for additional approved methods for mass depopulation of swine under emergency scenarios, especially methods that can be applied to pigs across all production phases. The market disruption within the swine industry due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has demonstrated this lack of preparation. The objective of this study was to validate water-based foam as a mass depopulation method for suckling (18 to 24 days of age) and finisher stage (63 to 100 days of age) pigs. Finisher pigs (n = 31, originally 32 but one finisher pig died prior to foaming), allocated as 9 triads and 1 set of 4 pigs, in 10 total replicates, and suckling pigs (n = 32), randomly allocated to two replicates, were completely covered in water-based medium-expansion foam for a 15-min dwell time in a bulk container. Container fill time for the trials were 6.5 ± 0.68 s and 5.3 ± 0.03 s for finisher and suckling pig replicates, respectively. Average (± SD) time for cessation of movement was 105 ± 39.1 s (s) for finisher pigs and 79.5 ± 10.5 s for suckling pigs. After completion of the 15-min dwell time in the foam, all pigs were confirmed dead upon removal from the container. The results from the present study suggest that the use of water-based foam can be an effective means of mass depopulation for suckling and finisher stage pigs, supporting previous research on the application to adult swine.

2.
Nature ; 602(7897): 481-486, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585829

ABSTRACT

Humans have infected a wide range of animals with SARS-CoV-21-5, but the establishment of a new natural animal reservoir has not been observed. Here we document that free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are highly susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, are exposed to multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants from humans and are capable of sustaining transmission in nature. Using real-time PCR with reverse transcription, we detected SARS-CoV-2 in more than one-third (129 out of 360, 35.8%) of nasal swabs obtained from O. virginianus in northeast Ohio in the USA during January to March 2021. Deer in six locations were infected with three SARS-CoV-2 lineages (B.1.2, B.1.582 and B.1.596). The B.1.2 viruses, dominant in humans in Ohio at the time, infected deer in four locations. We detected probable deer-to-deer transmission of B.1.2, B.1.582 and B.1.596 viruses, enabling the virus to acquire amino acid substitutions in the spike protein (including the receptor-binding domain) and ORF1 that are observed infrequently in humans. No spillback to humans was observed, but these findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 viruses have been transmitted in wildlife in the USA, potentially opening new pathways for evolution. There is an urgent need to establish comprehensive 'One Health' programmes to monitor the environment, deer and other wildlife hosts globally.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Deer/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Male , Ohio/epidemiology , One Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may present with a variety of clinical syndromes, however, the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract are the principle sites of infection. Previous work on respiratory viral infections demonstrated that airway inflammation results in the release of volatile organic compounds as well as nitric oxide. The detection of these gases from patients' exhaled breath offers a novel potential diagnostic target for COVID-19 that would offer real-time screening of patients for COVID-19 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present here a breath tester utilizing a catalytically active material, which allows for the temporal manifestation of the gaseous biomarkers' interactions with the sensor, thus giving a distinct breath print of the disease. A total of 46 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on mechanical ventilation participated in the study, 23 with active COVID-19 respiratory infection and 23 non-COVID-19 controls. Exhaled breath bags were collected on ICU days 1, 3, 7, and 10 or until liberation from mechanical ventilation. The breathalyzer detected high exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration with a distinctive pattern for patients with active COVID-19 pneumonia. The COVID-19 "breath print" has the pattern of the small Greek letter omega (). The "breath print" identified patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with 88% accuracy upon their admission to the ICU. Furthermore, the sensitivity index of the breath print (which scales with the concentration of the key biomarker ammonia) appears to correlate with duration of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of this breath tester technology for the rapid screening for COVID-19 and potentially detection of other infectious diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Aged , Biomarkers , Breath Tests/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
4.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945709

ABSTRACT

Swine mass depopulation refers to the destruction of large numbers of pigs and may include not only animals affected with a disease but also healthy pigs in a facility or surrounding areas. Emerging applications of mass depopulation include reducing welfare issues associated with slaughter delays, which was observed in the United States in 2020 as a result of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The objectives of this review were to summarize the available literature on swine depopulation methods and to highlight critical gaps in knowledge. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through a systematic search in electronic databases including Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PubMed. A total of 68 publications were assessed. Gaseous carbon dioxide inhalation was the most commonly reported depopulation method for both small- and large-scale trials. Measurements of consciousness state, which serves to assess suffering and humaneness, appeared to be lacking in a high proportion of the studies. None of the published studies demonstrated an ideally reliable and safe way to induce rapid unconsciousness in large groups of pigs. Development of rapid mass depopulation methods applicable to large groups of pigs is necessary to provide industry partners with suitable and low-cost emergency preparedness procedures while adhering to personnel safety and animal welfare standards. Lastly, there is an urgent need to standardize comprehensive reporting guidelines for depopulation studies.

5.
Trimestre Economico ; 87(347):899-917, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-804118

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 global pandemic, and in the face of an imminent crisis derived from it, various concerns arise regarding the economic consequences that the situation will bring, as well as whether the response of the different governments will be enough in the long term. The Foundational Economy Collective proposes, for the European context in particular, a series of points and lessons for the economic policy decisions that emerge from this crisis in order to stimulate national and regional economies once the pandemic is over.

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