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1.
mBio ; : e0157722, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909595

ABSTRACT

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 replication and systemic dissemination are linked to increased COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. However, the precise immune profiles that track with enhanced viral clearance, particularly from systemic RNAemia, remain incompletely defined. To define whether antibody characteristics, specificities, or functions that emerge during natural infection are linked to accelerated containment of viral replication, we examined the relationship of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune evolution in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia, which is tightly associated with disease severity and death. On presentation to the emergency department, S-specific IgG3, IgA1, and Fc-γ-receptor (Fcγ R) binding antibodies were all inversely associated with higher baseline plasma RNAemia. Importantly, the rapid development of spike (S) and its subunit (S1/S2/receptor binding domain)-specific IgG, especially FcγR binding activity, were associated with clearance of RNAemia. These results point to a potentially critical and direct role for SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune clearance on viral dissemination, persistence, and disease outcome, providing novel insights for the development of more effective therapeutics to resolve COVID-19. IMPORTANCE We showed that persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is an independent predictor of severe COVID-19. We observed that SARS-CoV-2-targeted antibody maturation, specifically Fc-effector functions rather than neutralization, was strongly linked with the ability to rapidly clear viremia. This highlights the critical role of key humoral features in preventing viral dissemination or accelerating viremia clearance and provides insights for the design of next-generation monoclonal therapeutics. The main key points will be that (i) persistent SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia independently predicts severe COVID-19 and (ii) specific humoral immune functions play a critical role in halting viral dissemination and controlling COVID-19 disease progression.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338392

ABSTRACT

Despite the robust immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, emerging data reveal enhanced neutralizing antibody and T cell cross-reactivity among individuals that previously experienced COVID-19, pointing to a hybrid immune advantage with infection-associated immune priming. Beyond neutralizing antibodies and T cell immunity, mounting data point to a potential role for additional antibody effector functions, including opsinophagocytic activity, in the resolution of symptomatic COVID-19. Whether hybrid immunity modifies the Fc-effector profile of the mRNA vaccine-induced immune response remains incompletely understood. Thus, here we profiled the SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral immune response in a group of individuals with and without prior COVID-19. As expected, hybrid Spike-specific antibody titers were enhanced following the primary dose of the mRNA vaccine, but were similar to those achieved by naïve vaccinees after the second mRNA vaccine dose. Conversely, Spike-specific vaccine-induced Fc-receptor binding antibody levels were higher after the primary immunization in individuals with prior COVID-19, and remained higher following the second dose compared to naïve individuals, suggestive of a selective improvement in the quality, rather than the quantity, of the hybrid humoral immune response. Thus, while the magnitude of antibody titers alone may suggest that any two antigen exposures – either hybrid immunity or two doses of vaccine alone - represent a comparable prime/boost immunologic education, we find that hybrid immunity offers a qualitatively improved antibody response able to better leverage Fc effector functions against conserved regions of the virus.

3.
mBio ; : e0214121, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650754

ABSTRACT

As public health guidelines throughout the world have relaxed in response to vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2, it is likely that SARS-CoV-2 will remain endemic, fueled by the rise of more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants. Moreover, in the setting of waning natural and vaccine immunity, reinfections have emerged across the globe, even among previously infected and vaccinated individuals. As such, the ability to detect reexposure to and reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 is a key component for global protection against this virus and, more importantly, against the potential emergence of vaccine escape mutations. Accordingly, there is a strong and continued need for the development and deployment of simple methods to detect emerging hot spots of reinfection to inform targeted pandemic response and containment, including targeted and specific deployment of vaccine booster campaigns. In this study, we identify simple, rapid immune biomarkers of reinfection in rhesus macaques, including IgG3 antibody levels against nucleocapsid and FcγR2A receptor binding activity of anti-RBD antibodies, that are recapitulated in human reinfection cases. As such, this cross-species analysis underscores the potential utility of simple antibody titers and function as price-effective and scalable markers of reinfection to provide increased resolution and resilience against new outbreaks. IMPORTANCE As public health and social distancing guidelines loosen in the setting of waning global natural and vaccine immunity, a deeper understanding of the immunological response to reexposure and reinfection to this highly contagious pathogen is necessary to maintain public health. Viral sequencing analysis provides a robust but unrealistic means to monitor reinfection globally. The identification of scalable pathogen-specific biomarkers of reexposure and reinfection, however, could significantly accelerate our capacity to monitor the spread of the virus through naive and experienced hosts, providing key insights into mechanisms of disease attenuation. Using a nonhuman primate model of controlled SARS-CoV-2 reexposure, we deeply probed the humoral immune response following rechallenge with various doses of viral inocula. We identified virus-specific humoral biomarkers of reinfection, with significant increases in antibody titer and function upon rechallenge across a range of humoral features, including IgG1 to the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (RBD), IgG3 to the nucleocapsid protein (N), and FcγR2A receptor binding to anti-RBD antibodies. These features not only differentiated primary infection from reexposure and reinfection in monkeys but also were recapitulated in a sequencing-confirmed reinfection patient and in a cohort of putatively reinfected humans that evolved a PCR-positive test in spite of preexisting seropositivity. As such, this cross-species analysis using a controlled primate model and human cohorts reveals increases in antibody titers as promising cross-validated serological markers of reinfection and reexposure.

4.
Sci Immunol ; 6(64): eabj2901, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470496

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2­specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across ß-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2­specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common ß-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , Young Adult
5.
Res Sq ; 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417405

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have already shown remarkable protection in limiting SARS-CoV-2 associated disease. However, immunologic mechanism(s) of protection, as well as how boosting alters immunity to wildtype and newly emerging strains, remain incompletely understood. Here we deeply profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a stable recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two dose levels, administered as a single or two-dose regimen with a saponin-based adjuvant Matrix-M™. While antigen dose had some effect on Fc-effector profiles, both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered overall titers, neutralization and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were strongly associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract, pointing to the presence of combined, but distinct, compartment-specific neutralization and Fc-mechanisms as key determinants of protective immunity against infection. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies functionally target emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, collectively pointing to the critical collaborative role for Fab and Fc in driving maximal protection against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease, but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.

7.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100405, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377862

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy in limiting SARS-CoV-2-associated disease. However, with the variety of vaccines, immunization strategies, and waning antibody titers, defining the correlates of immunity across a spectrum of antibody titers is urgently required. Thus, we profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two doses, administered as a single- or two-dose regimen. Both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered neutralization titers and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies that functionally targeted emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease via combined Fc/Fab functions but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nanoparticles , Primates/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2333-2344, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of interleukin-6 receptor blockade in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) who are not receiving mechanical ventilation is unclear. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, hyperinflammatory states, and at least two of the following signs: fever (body temperature >38°C), pulmonary infiltrates, or the need for supplemental oxygen in order to maintain an oxygen saturation greater than 92%. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive standard care plus a single dose of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. The primary outcome was intubation or death, assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The secondary efficacy outcomes were clinical worsening and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen among patients who had been receiving it at baseline, both assessed in time-to-event analyses. RESULTS: We enrolled 243 patients; 141 (58%) were men, and 102 (42%) were women. The median age was 59.8 years (range, 21.7 to 85.4), and 45% of the patients were Hispanic or Latino. The hazard ratio for intubation or death in the tocilizumab group as compared with the placebo group was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 1.81; P = 0.64), and the hazard ratio for disease worsening was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.59 to 2.10; P = 0.73). At 14 days, 18.0% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 14.9% of the patients in the placebo group had had worsening of disease. The median time to discontinuation of supplemental oxygen was 5.0 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.6) in the tocilizumab group and 4.9 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.8) in the placebo group (P = 0.69). At 14 days, 24.6% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 21.2% of the patients in the placebo group were still receiving supplemental oxygen. Patients who received tocilizumab had fewer serious infections than patients who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab was not effective for preventing intubation or death in moderately ill hospitalized patients with Covid-19. Some benefit or harm cannot be ruled out, however, because the confidence intervals for efficacy comparisons were wide. (Funded by Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04356937.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Boston , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Therapy , Treatment Failure , Young Adult
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