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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243603, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033061

ABSTRACT

Most clinical research stopped during COVID due to possible impact on data quality and personnel safety. We aimed to assess the impact of COVID on acute stroke clinical trial conduct at sites that continued to enroll patients during the pandemic. BEST-MSU is an ongoing study of Mobile Stroke Units (MSU) vs standard management of tPA-eligible acute stroke patients in the pre-hospital setting. MSU personnel include a vascular neurologist via telemedicine, and a nurse, CT technologist, paramedics and emergency medicine technicians on-board. During COVID, consent, 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and EQ5D were obtained by phone instead of in-person, but other aspects of management were similar to the pre-COVID period. We compared patient demographics, study metrics, and infection of study personnel during intra- vs pre-COVID eras. Five of 6 BEST-MSU sites continued to enroll during COVID. There were no differences in intra- (n = 57) vs pre- (n = 869) COVID enrolled tPA eligible patients' age, sex, race (38.6% vs 38.0% Black), ethnicity (15.8% vs 18.6% Hispanic), or NIHSS (median 11 vs 9). The percent of screened patients enrolled and adjudicated tPA eligible declined from 13.6% to 6.6% (p < .001); study enrollment correlated with local stay-at-home and reopening orders. There were no differences in alert to MSU arrival or arrival to tPA times, but MSU on-scene time was 5 min longer (p = .01). There were no differences in ED door to CT, tPA treatment or thrombectomy puncture times, hospital length of stay, discharge disposition, or remote vs in-person 90-day mRS or EQ5D. One MSU nurse tested positive but did not require hospitalization. Clinical research in the pre-hospital setting can be carried out accurately and safely during a pandemic. tPA eligibility rates declined, but otherwise there were no differences in patient demographics, deterioration of study processes, or serious infection of study staff. Trial registration: NCT02190500.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
2.
Case Rep Neurol ; 12(2): 199-209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638529

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state causing cardiovascular and neurovascular complications. To further characterize cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in COVID-19, we review the current literature of published cases and additionally report the clinical presentation, laboratory and diagnostic testing results of 12 cases with COVID-19 infection and concurrent CVD from two academic medical centers in Houston, TX, USA, between March 1 and May 10, 2020. To date, there are 12 case studies reporting 47 cases of CVD in COVID-19. However, only 4 small case series have described the clinical and laboratory findings in patients with COVID-19 and concurrent stroke. Viral neurotropism, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and inflammation are plausible proposed mechanisms of CVD in COVID-19 patients. In our case series of 12 patients, 10 patients had an ischemic stroke, of which 1 suffered hemorrhagic transformation and two had intracerebral hemorrhage. Etiology was determined to be embolic without a clear cause identified in 6 ischemic stroke patients, while the remaining had an identifiable source of stroke. The majority of the patients had elevated inflammatory markers such as D-dimer and interleukin-6. In patients with embolic stroke of unclear etiology, COVID-19 may have played a direct or indirect role in the processes that eventually led to the strokes while in the remaining cases, it is unclear if infection contributed partially or was an incidental finding.

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