Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
J Virol ; 96(20): e0115222, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053122

ABSTRACT

Bats are recognized as important reservoirs of viruses deadly to other mammals, including humans. These infections are typically nonpathogenic in bats, raising questions about host response differences that might exist between bats and other mammals. Tetherin is a restriction factor which inhibits the release of a diverse range of viruses from host cells, including retroviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and paramyxoviruses, some of which are deadly to humans and transmitted by bats. Here, we characterize the tetherin genes from 27 bat species, revealing that they have evolved under strong selective pressure, and that fruit bats and vesper bats express unique structural variants of the tetherin protein. Tetherin was widely and variably expressed across fruit bat tissue types and upregulated in spleen tissue when stimulated with Toll-like receptor agonists. The expression of two computationally predicted splice isoforms of fruit bat tetherin was verified. We identified an additional third unique splice isoform which includes a C-terminal region that is not homologous to known mammalian tetherin variants but was functionally capable of restricting the release of filoviral virus-like particles. We also report that vesper bats possess and express at least five tetherin genes, including structural variants, more than any other mammal reported to date. These findings support the hypothesis of differential antiviral gene evolution in bats relative to other mammals. IMPORTANCE Bats are an important host of various viruses which are deadly to humans and other mammals but do not cause outward signs of illness in bats. Furthering our understanding of the unique features of the immune system of bats will shed light on how they tolerate viral infections, potentially informing novel antiviral strategies in humans and other animals. This study examines the antiviral protein tetherin, which prevents viral particles from escaping their host cell. Analysis of tetherin from 27 bat species reveals that it is under strong evolutionary pressure, and we show that multiple bat species have evolved to possess more tetherin genes than other mammals, some of which encode structurally unique tetherins capable of activity against different viral particles. These data suggest that bat tetherin plays a potentially broad and important role in the management of viral infections in bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Animals , Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents , Toll-Like Receptors
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2366-e2377, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819931

ABSTRACT

Due to their geographical isolation and small populations, insular bats may not be able to maintain acute immunizing viruses that rely on a large population for viral maintenance. Instead, endemic transmission may rely on viruses establishing persistent infections within hosts or inducing only short-lived neutralizing immunity. Therefore, studies on insular populations are valuable for developing broader understanding of viral maintenance in bats. The Christmas Island flying-fox (CIFF; Pteropus natalis) is endemic on Christmas Island, a remote Australian territory, and is an ideal model species to understand viral maintenance in small, geographically isolated bat populations. Serum or plasma (n = 190), oral swabs (n = 199), faeces (n = 31), urine (n = 32) and urine swabs (n = 25) were collected from 228 CIFFs. Samples were tested using multiplex serological and molecular assays, and attempts at virus isolation to determine the presence of paramyxoviruses, betacoronaviruses and Australian bat lyssavirus. Analysis of serological data provides evidence that the species is maintaining a pararubulavirus and a betacoronavirus. There was little serological evidence supporting the presence of active circulation of the other viruses assessed in the present study. No viral nucleic acid was detected and no viruses were isolated. Age-seropositivity results support the hypothesis that geographically isolated bat populations can maintain some paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses. Further studies are required to elucidate infection dynamics and characterize viruses in the CIFF. Lastly, apparent absence of some pathogens could have implications for the conservation of the CIFF if a novel disease were introduced into the population through human carriage or an invasive species. Adopting increased biosecurity protocols for ships porting on Christmas Island and for researchers and bat carers working with flying-foxes are recommended to decrease the risk of pathogen introduction and contribute to the health and conservation of the species.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Lyssavirus , Nucleic Acids , Animals , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Humans
3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 67, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223093

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are likely to be critical in the management of the ongoing pandemic. A number of candidates are in Phase III human clinical trials, including ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate. In preclinical trials, the efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against SARS-CoV-2 challenge was evaluated in a ferret model of infection. Groups of ferrets received either prime-only or prime-boost administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 via the intramuscular or intranasal route. All ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration combinations resulted in significant reductions in viral loads in nasal-wash and oral swab samples. No vaccine-associated adverse events were observed associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 candidate, with the data from this study suggesting it could be an effective and safe vaccine against COVID-19. Our study also indicates the potential for intranasal administration as a way to further improve the efficacy of this leading vaccine candidate.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2628-2632, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901200

ABSTRACT

Many infectious pathogens can be transmitted by highly mobile species, like bats that can act as reservoir hosts for viruses such as henipaviruses, lyssaviruses and coronaviruses. In this study, we investigated the seroepidemiology of protein antigens to Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle eastern respiratory syndrome virus (MERS-CoV) in Grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Adelaide, Australia sampled between September 2015 and February 2018. A total of 301 serum samples were collected and evaluated using a multiplex Luminex binding assay, and median fluorescence intensity thresholds were determined using finite-mixture modelling. We found evidence of antibodies reactive to SARS-CoV-1 or a related antigen with 42.5% (CI: 34.3%-51.2%) seroprevalence but insufficient evidence of reactivity to MERS-CoV antigen. This study provides evidence that the Grey-headed flying foxes sampled in Adelaide have been exposed to a SARS-like coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Lyssavirus , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620517

ABSTRACT

The respiratory Influenza A Viruses (IAVs) and emerging zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pose a significant threat to human health. To accelerate our understanding of the host-pathogen response to respiratory viruses, the use of more complex in vitro systems such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell culture models has gained prominence as an alternative to animal models. NHBE cells were differentiated under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions to form an in vitro pseudostratified epithelium. The responses of well-differentiated (wd) NHBE cells were examined following infection with the 2009 pandemic Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 strain or following challenge with the dsRNA mimic, poly(I:C). At 30 h postinfection with H1N1pdm09, the integrity of the airway epithelium was severely impaired and apical junction complex damage was exhibited by the disassembly of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) from the cell cytoskeleton. wdNHBE cells produced an innate immune response to IAV-infection with increased transcription of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the antiviral viperin but reduced expression of the mucin-encoding MUC5B, which may impair mucociliary clearance. Poly(I:C) produced similar responses to IAV, with the exception of MUC5B expression which was more than 3-fold higher than for control cells. This study demonstrates that wdNHBE cells are an appropriate ex-vivo model system to investigate the pathogenesis of respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dogs , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Intercellular Junctions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Models, Biological , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Pandemics , Virus Cultivation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL