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J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(5): 1236-1248, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117192


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic's effects on nephrology fellows' educational experiences, preparedness for practice, and emotional wellbeing are unknown. METHODS: We recruited current adult and pediatric fellows and 2020 graduates of nephrology training programs in the United States to participate in a survey measuring COVID-19's effects on their training experiences and wellbeing. RESULTS: Of 1005 nephrology fellows-in-training and recent graduates, 425 participated (response rate 42%). Telehealth was widely adopted (90% for some or all outpatient nephrology consults), as was remote learning (76% of conferences were exclusively online). Most respondents (64%) did not have in-person consults on COVID-19 inpatients; these patients were managed by telehealth visits (27%), by in-person visits with the attending faculty without fellows (29%), or by another approach (9%). A majority of fellows (84%) and graduates (82%) said their training programs successfully sustained their education during the pandemic, and most fellows (86%) and graduates (90%) perceived themselves as prepared for unsupervised practice. Although 42% indicated the pandemic had negatively affected their overall quality of life and 33% reported a poorer work-life balance, only 15% of 412 respondents who completed the Resident Well-Being Index met its distress threshold. Risk for distress was increased among respondents who perceived the pandemic had impaired their knowledge base (odds ratio [OR], 3.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.00 to 4.77) or negatively affected their quality of life (OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.29 to 5.46) or work-life balance (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 2.18 to 4.71). CONCLUSIONS: Despite major shifts in education modalities and patient care protocols precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, participants perceived their education and preparation for practice to be minimally affected.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Nephrology/education , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Clinical Competence , Education, Distance , Education, Medical, Graduate , Fellowships and Scholarships , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency , Male , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatrics/education , Remote Consultation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(2): 190-203.e1, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780044


RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Underlying kidney disease is an emerging risk factor for more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. We examined the clinical courses of critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and investigated the association between the degree of underlying kidney disease and in-hospital outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 4,264 critically ill patients with COVID-19 (143 patients with pre-existing kidney failure receiving maintenance dialysis; 521 patients with pre-existing non-dialysis-dependent CKD; and 3,600 patients without pre-existing CKD) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the United States. PREDICTOR(S): Presence (vs absence) of pre-existing kidney disease. OUTCOME(S): In-hospital mortality (primary); respiratory failure, shock, ventricular arrhythmia/cardiac arrest, thromboembolic events, major bleeds, and acute liver injury (secondary). ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We used standardized differences to compare patient characteristics (values>0.10 indicate a meaningful difference between groups) and multivariable-adjusted Fine and Gray survival models to examine outcome associations. RESULTS: Dialysis patients had a shorter time from symptom onset to ICU admission compared to other groups (median of 4 [IQR, 2-9] days for maintenance dialysis patients; 7 [IQR, 3-10] days for non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients; and 7 [IQR, 4-10] days for patients without pre-existing CKD). More dialysis patients (25%) reported altered mental status than those with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (20%; standardized difference=0.12) and those without pre-existing CKD (12%; standardized difference=0.36). Half of dialysis and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients died within 28 days of ICU admission versus 35% of patients without pre-existing CKD. Compared to patients without pre-existing CKD, dialysis patients had higher risk for 28-day in-hospital death (adjusted HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.09-1.81]), while patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD had an intermediate risk (adjusted HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.08-1.44]). LIMITATIONS: Potential residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the high mortality of individuals with underlying kidney disease and severe COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying safe and effective COVID-19 therapies in this vulnerable population.

COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Kidney Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology