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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317409

ABSTRACT

In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the “pandemic state”due to COVID-19 imposing strict confinement of the world population. People were forced to spend more time at home, changing some daily routines, including social interactions, the possibility to perform sports, and diet habits. These changes could exert a greater impact on patients suffering from chronic diseases, such as endocrine patients. This study aimed to assess the effects of Covid-19 induced quarantine on daily habits in a group of patients with endocrine disorders, focusing on food consumption, eating, and sleep habits during the confinement. Eighty-five endocrine patients were enrolled. A structured interview was administered investigating: socio-demographic information, general medical conditions and habits adopted during the quarantine. All patients underwent the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1) to assess state anxiety. Subjects had mainly a sedentary lifestyle. We found a significant increase in the number of cigarettes in smokers, an increase of meals consumed during the confinement and a high rate of sleep disorder occurrence, especially insomnia. The changes of daily habits were, probably, due to the alterations of routine, that determined more bore and inactivity during the day.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310179

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global health. As no specific therapeutics are yet available to control disease evolution, more in-depth understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms induced by SARS-CoV-2 will help to characterize new targets for the management of COVID-19. The present study identified a specific set of biological pathways altered in primary human lung epithelium upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a comparison with SARS-CoV from the 2003 pandemic was studied. The transcriptomic profiles were also exploited as possible novel therapeutic targets, and anti-signature perturbation analysis predicted potential drugs to control disease progression. Among them, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), serine-threonine kinase (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and I kappa B Kinase (IKK) inhibitors emerged as candidate drugs. Finally, sex-specific differences that may underlie the higher COVID-19 mortality in men are proposed.

3.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X211054839, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system that can lead to severe motor disability. The aim of this study was to verify the health care effects of an integrated telerehabilitation approach involving dual-domains (motor and cognitive) in people with multiple sclerosis using a virtual reality rehabilitation system compared to a home-based conventional rehabilitative intervention usual care for patient-relevant outcomes (motor, cognitive and participation). METHODS: This multicentre interventional, randomized controlled trial included 70 participants with multiple sclerosis, 35 in the telerehabilitation group (30 sessions of home-based virtual reality rehabilitation system training, five sessions for week each lasting 45 min) and 35 in the usual care group (30 sessions of conventional treatment, five sessions for week). Participants completed the assessment of motor, cognitive and participation outcomes at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: In total, 63.3% of the telerehabilitation group exhibited improvement in the physical domain of the quality of life (p = 0.045). The telerehabilitation group showed greater improvement than the usual care group in Mini-BESTest domains of balance (p = 0.014), postural control (p = 0.024), and dynamic walking (p = 0.020) at post-treatment. Higher adherence was registered for telerehabilitation compared with usual care (86.67% vs. 80.0%). DISCUSSION: This study provides evidence that people with multiple sclerosis can benefit from telerehabilitation treatment in the physical domain of the quality of life and motor symptoms. Moreover, considering the persistent COVID-19 emergency, telerehabilitation can represent an effective telemedicine solution for safely delivering effective rehabilitation care to people with multiple sclerosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND TRIAL REGISTER: This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03444454).

4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374305

ABSTRACT

According to the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is known that the nervous system is influenced by the virus. We used pediatric human cerebral cortical cell line HCN-2 as a neuronal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and, through transcriptomic analysis, our aim was to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this type of cells. Transcriptome analyses revealed impairment in TXN gene, resulting in deregulation of its antioxidant functions, as well as a decrease in the DNA-repairing mechanism, as indicated by the decrease in KAT5. Western blot analyses of SOD1 and iNOS confirmed the impairment of reduction mechanisms and an increase in oxidative stress. Upregulation of CDKN2A and a decrease in CDK4 and CDK6 point to the blocking of the cell cycle that, according to the deregulation of repairing mechanism, has apoptosis as the outcome. A high level of proapoptotic gene PMAIP1 is indeed coherent with neuronal death, as also supported by increased levels of caspase 3. The upregulation of cell-cycle-blocking genes and apoptosis suggests a sufferance state of neurons after SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by their inevitable death, which can explain the neurological symptoms reported. Further analyses are required to deeply explain the mechanisms and find potential treatments to protect neurons from oxidative stress and prevent their death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Neurons/pathology , Oxidative Stress/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Humans , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335097

ABSTRACT

Different mechanisms were proposed as responsible for COVID-19 neurological symptoms but a clear one has not been established yet. In this work we aimed to study SARS-CoV-2 capacity to infect pediatric human cortical neuronal HCN-2 cells, studying the changes in the transcriptomic profile by next generation sequencing. SARS-CoV-2 was able to replicate in HCN-2 cells, that did not express ACE2, confirmed also with Western blot, and TMPRSS2. Looking for pattern recognition receptor expression, we found the deregulation of scavenger receptors, such as SR-B1, and the downregulation of genes encoding for Nod-like receptors. On the other hand, TLR1, TLR4 and TLR6 encoding for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were upregulated. We also found the upregulation of genes encoding for ERK, JNK, NF-κB and Caspase 8 in our transcriptomic analysis. Regarding the expression of known receptors for viral RNA, only RIG-1 showed an increased expression; downstream RIG-1, the genes encoding for TRAF3, IKKε and IRF3 were downregulated. We also found the upregulation of genes encoding for chemokines and accordingly we found an increase in cytokine/chemokine levels in the medium. According to our results, it is possible to speculate that additionally to ACE2 and TMPRSS2, also other receptors may interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins and mediate its entry or pathogenesis in pediatric cortical neurons infected with SARS-CoV-2. In particular, TLRs signaling could be crucial for the neurological involvement related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Neurons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Neurons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Virus Replication
6.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309589

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Increased severity of COVID-19 has been observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to identify common transcriptional signatures, regulators and pathways between COVID-19 and DM. We have integrated human whole-genome transcriptomic datasets from COVID-19 and DM, followed by functional assessment with gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), among the upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 32 were found to be commonly modulated in COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes (T2D), while 10 DEGs were commonly downregulated. As regards type 1 diabetes (T1D), 21 DEGs were commonly upregulated, and 29 DEGs were commonly downregulated in COVID-19 and T1D. Moreover, 35 DEGs were commonly upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infected pancreas organoids and T2D islets, while 14 were commonly downregulated. Several GO terms were found in common between COVID-19 and DM. Prediction of the putative transcription factors involved in the upregulation of genes in COVID-19 and DM identified RELA to be implicated in both PBMCs and pancreas. Here, for the first time, we have characterized the biological processes and pathways commonly dysregulated in COVID-19 and DM, which could be in the next future used for the design of personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients suffering from DM as comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253958, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Disorders of consciousness include coma (cannot be aroused, eye remain closed), vegetative state-VS (can appear to be awake, but unable to purposefully interact) and minimally conscious state-MCS (minimal but definite awareness). The objective of this study is to assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on the Disorder of Consciousness (DOC) Rehabilitation Unit. METHODS: This is a retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive, observational, pilot study. We consecutively enrolled 18 patients (age range: 40-72 years, 9 females and 9 males), from three to five months after a brain injury. They were grouped into VS (n = 8) and MCS (n = 10). A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on high-throughput sequencing or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of throat swab specimens. We collected data of lung Computed Tomography (CT) and laboratory exams. DOC patients who were positive for SARS-CoV-2 were classified into severe and no severe infected group, according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 18 hospitalized patients with (16) and without confirmed (2) SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the analysis. After one month, a follow-up clinical evaluation reported that one patient died, one patient was transferred from Covid Unit to Emergency Unit and 3 patients were resulted negative to double swab and they returned to Rehabilitative Unit. Significant differences were reported about hypertension, cardiac disease and respiratory problems between the patients with severe infection and patients without severe infection (P< 0.001). The laboratory findings, such as blood cell counts (P < 0.001), C-reactive protein, D-dimer, potassium and vitamin D levels, seemed to be considered as useful prognostic predictors. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study on a sample of chronic DOC patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. This study may offer important new clinical information on COVID-19 for management of DOC patients. Our findings showed that for the subjects with severe infection due to COVID-19, rapid clinical deterioration or worsening could be associated with clinical and laboratory findings, which could contribute to high mortality rate. During the COVID-19 epidemic period, the clinicians should consider all the reported risk factors to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and to prevent the infection transmission in DOC Rehabilitation Unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/rehabilitation , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270077

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly spreading contagious infectious disease caused by the pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that primarily affects the respiratory tract as well as the central nervous system (CNS). SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs through the interaction of the viral protein Spike with the angiotensin II receptor (ACE 2), leading to an increase of angiotensin II and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase2 (NOX2), resulting in the release of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory molecules. The purpose of the review is to explain that SARS-CoV-2 infection can determine neuroinflammation that induces NOX2 activation in microglia. To better understand the role of NOX2 in inflammation, an overview of its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is provided. To write this manuscript, we performed a PubMed search to evaluate the possible relationship of SARS-CoV-2 infection in NOX2 activation in microglia, as well as the role of NOX2 in NDs. Several studies highlighted that NOX2 activation in microglia amplifies neuroinflammation. To date, there is no clinical treatment capable of counteracting its activation, however, NOX2 could be a promising pharmaceutical target useful for both the treatment and prevention of NDs and COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Neurodegenerative Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218431

ABSTRACT

On March 2019 the World Health Organization declared Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Several recent reports disclose that the outcome of the infection is related to age, sex and can be influenced by underlying clinical conditions. Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonisms are the most common chronic disease which can cause, directly or indirectly, the patient to be more exposed to other diseases, mostly respiratory system's ones. Our primary outcome is to evaluate if PD patients are more susceptible than non-PD to take COVID-19 infection. Second, to detect if the infection course is worse in PD-COVID+ patients versus non-PD. This is a retrospective observational study on a cohort of 18 patients (13 PD- 5 non-PD), hospitalized in a Rehabilitative Unit during the occurrence of SARS-CoV2 epidemic outbreak. All patients performed laboratory tests, lung Computed Tomography (CT) and have been tested for COVID-19 thorough pharyngeal swab. PD and non-PD groups were comparable for age, gender and Hoehn and Yahr stage. Seventy-seven (77)% of PD and 60% of non-PD resulted positive for COVID-19. PD-COVID+ and PD-COVID- did not differ for age, disease duration and L-dopa daily dose. PD COVID-19+ subjects were mainly asymptomatic (50%) while non-PD ones were all symptomatic, mostly with respiratory difficulties. PD doesn't seem to be a risk factor to take SARS-COV2 infection, even if our study is related to a limited sample size. Our results, together with those of other recent studies, highlight the need to evaluate the actual susceptibility of patients with Parkinson's disease to develop COVID-19 disease, and how the infection may influence the risk of clinical worsening and increase of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinsonian Disorders/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X21990195, 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153783

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acquired brain injury(SABI) often results in the deterioration of physical, cognitive and emotional functions in the patient and a significant caregiver's distress syndrome, which is now amplified by the social isolation, depression and financial difficulties related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of web-based online-therapy has been shown to be useful to overcome caregiver's distress syndrome and further stimulate cognitive-motor recovery of SABI-patients. Our study aimed to investigate whether a systematic online Skype-therapy(OLST) may be of support in favoring global cognitive and sensory-motor recovery in SABI-patients and reducing caregiver distress. METHODS: Twenty-five SABI-subjects in inpatient regimen were provided with intensive OLST with the caregiver for 12 weeks in addition to standard neurorehabilitation. Each subject and caregiver was evaluated before and after the treatment by administering an ad hoc battery. Furthermore, 18 of 27 patients were provided with EEG recording in resting state. RESULTS: We found a significant reduction in caregiver's anxiety (p<0.0001) and burden(p<0.0001). Patients showed significant improvement in trunk control (p<0.0001), functional independence (p = 0.005), functional (p = 0.01) and global communication (p = 0.004), cognitive functioning (p = 0.001), and behavioral responsiveness (p = 0.0004). The training yielded a significant connectivity change within the fronto-centro-parietal areas in the delta frequency band (p<0.0001) and the centro-parieto-occipital areas in the alpha range (p = 0.004). DISCUSSION: OLST may be a useful and complementary treatment to optimize global cognitive and functional recovery in SABI-subjects and reduce caregivers' concerns in the Covid-era. OLST can foster cognitive-motor recovery potentially by favoring the plasticity-dependent functional recovery. Therefore, OLST could be proposed as a tool allowing social conversations also in the hospital setting.

11.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(3): 903-912, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750592

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) is a novel ß coronavirus that is the etiological agent of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) that at the time of writing (June 16, 2020) has infected almost 6 million people with some 450,000 deaths. These numbers are still rising daily. Most (some 80%) cases of COVID­19 infection are asymptomatic, a substantial number of cases (15%) require hospitalization and an additional fraction of patients (5%) need recovery in intensive care units. Mortality for COVID­19 infection appears to occur globally between 0.1 and 0.5% of infected patients although the frequency of lethality is significantly augmented in the elderly and in patients with other comorbidities. The development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and episodes of thromboembolism that may lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) represent the primary causes of lethality during COVID­19 infection. Increasing evidence suggests that thrombotic diathesis is due to multiple derangements of the coagulation system including marked elevation of D­dimer that correlate negatively with survival. We propose here that the thromboembolic events and eventually the development of DIC provoked by SARS­CoV­2 infection may represent a secondary anti­phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). We will apply both Baconian inductivism and Cartesian deductivism to prove that secondary APS is likely responsible for coagulopathy during the course of COVID­19 infection. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of this are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Phospholipids/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/immunology
12.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(4): 1266-1273, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736764

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease (named, COVID­19), caused by the novel SARS­CoV­2 virus, represents a worldwide severe threat to public health. It is of the utmost importance to characterize the immune responses against the SARS­CoV­2 and the mechanisms of hyperinflammation, in order to design better therapeutic strategies for COVID­19. In the present study, a transcriptomic analysis was performed to profile the immune signatures in lung and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from COVID­19 patients and controls. Our data concordantly revealed increased humoral responses to infection. The elucidation of the host responses to SARS­CoV­2 infection may further improve our understanding of COVID­19 pathogenesis and suggest better therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Transcriptome , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Databases, Factual , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(7): 102571, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155063

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global health. As no specific therapeutics are yet available to control disease evolution, more in-depth understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms induced by SARS-CoV-2 will help to characterize new targets for the management of COVID-19. The present study identified a specific set of biological pathways altered in primary human lung epithelium upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a comparison with SARS-CoV from the 2003 pandemic was studied. The transcriptomic profiles were also exploited as possible novel therapeutic targets, and anti-signature perturbation analysis predicted potential drugs to control disease progression. Among them, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), serine-threonine kinase (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and I kappa B Kinase (IKK) inhibitors emerged as candidate drugs. Finally, sex-specific differences that may underlie the higher COVID-19 mortality in men are proposed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Sex Factors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Drug Discovery , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/cytology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Transcriptome
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