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Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617062


Background: COVID-19 has changed the perspective through which medical staff look at dyspnea and hypoxemia cases. Epidemiological links are frequently missing, and clinical and imagological findings are often unspecific, overlapping substantially with other respiratory infections. Case summary: We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a known history of asthma who had recently moved from Guinea-Bissau with her mother. Although the mother reported being Ag HBs positive, no serologic studies had ever been performed on the child. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room after 4 days of cough and the feeling of thoracic oppression, without fever. No contact with suspected or confirmed individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 or other respiratory viruses was reported. She presented with peripheral oxygen saturation of 90%, costal retractions and a prolonged expiratory phase. After an unsuccessful course of bronchodilators and prednisolone, she was admitted to the Pediatric Intermediate Care Unit because of a sustained need for oxygen therapy. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for SARS CoV-2 came back negative. A chest radiograph displayed a bilateral reticular infiltrate, and therapy with azithromycin was started. Due to a deterioration of the dyspnea, a chest tomography was eventually performed, revealing an exuberant and bilateral ground glass-like densification suggestive of alveolar injury. Echocardiogram and e electrocardiogram were both normal. After a positive serologic result for HIV, the patient was transferred to a Level III hospital, and Pneumocystis jirovecii was identified in bronchoalveolar lavage. T cell count was 12/mm3. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and cotrimoxazole were started, prompting clinical and analytical recovery. Discussion: Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised children. Even though an asthma exacerbation and atypical bacterial or viral infections, namely COVID-19, present as more usual causes of dyspnea, a low suspicion index is warranted in children coming from HIV-endemic countries, particularly those who are unresponsive to conventional bronchodilator and antibiotic therapy.

Pediatric Diabetes ; 22(SUPPL 30):86-87, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570994


Introduction: The rate of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is multifactorial. There seems to be an inverse relationship between T1D's incidence and DKA's frequency. DKA has been reported to be more common among young children. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has posed additional challenges as to diagnosing T1D. Objectives: We aimed to assess the rate of DKA and associated risk factors in pediatric new-onset T1D in a large pediatric diabetes center in Portugal. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data of patients referred to a level III pediatric hospital between January 1st, 2013 and December 31th, 2020 (8 years). Results: We included 276 children and adolescents with a median age of 9,6 years, 20,1% under 5 years old. A mean incidence of 35 new cases/year was observed, with an upward trend. Newonset T1D cases under 5 years old raised progressively, having more than tripled throughout the study period (n=3 in 2013 vs. n=10 in 2020). In total, 38% children and adolescents presented with DKA, ranging from 23,3% in 2013 to 43,2% in 2020, while remaining stable (37,2%-40,9%) in the period in-between. Overall, DKA was considered severe in 24,8% of cases, ranging from 6% in 2017 to 47% in 2020. 20 (7,2%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. DKA at presentation was more frequent in the age group under 2 years old (p=0,016), in which 80% of patients presented with DKA. Non-DKA presentation was associated with family history of T1D (p=0,005). Conclusions: Our study shows an upward trend in T1D's incidence in children under 5 years old and a high DKA rate at disease onset, which was more frequent in patients under 2 years of age. In the first year of COVID-19 pandemic, 43% of DKA was considered severe. It is urgent to implement educational programs to promote earlier diagnosis. Broader studies are required to provide a representative national landscape of the epidemiology of T1D in pediatric population in Portugal.

Pediatric Diabetes ; 22(SUPPL 30):49, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570993


Introduction: On 12th March 2020, a national lockdown was imposed in Portugal, as a response to rising COVID-19 cases. Since then healthcare access patterns were deeply modified. Objectives: In this study, we tried to understand what shifted from prior years in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Methods: It was performed a retrospective analysis of patients referred to a level III pediatric hospital from March 2020 until March 2021. Patients admitted during the same period in the 3 previous years were set as control group. Results: Since lockdown imposition, 44 children and adolescents were diagnosed T1D, contrasting with prior mean incidence of 32 cases/ year. Median age was 9,9 years (min. 0,5 - max. 15,8). Children under 2 years-old represented 4,9% of cases, contrasting with only 2,1% in previous years. All subjects were tested for SARS CoV-2 but only 2 were positive. When comparing to prior years, subjects presenting with less than one week of symptoms almost doubled in 2020, (19,5% vs. 10,4%), and a higher rate of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was also observed (53,7%, vs. 38,5%). DKA severity was also higher (40,9% vs. 21,6%;p=0,02 and 14,6% subjects required admission to intensive care unit. Conclusions: Similarly to other reports, a higher number of new-onset T1D was observed, with a comparable increase in severity. In contrast to what might have been expected, DKA prevalence and severity was not necessarily linked to delayed diagnosis. We estimate that such severity may be related to a higher proportion of younger patients. While the role of SARS CoV-2 exposure in pancreatic islet cells destruction is still under investigation, antibody assessment and detailed contact history could help to explain the increased prevalence and severity of new-onset T1D during the pandemic period.