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1.
J Cancer Policy ; 33: 100338, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early COVID-19 literature suggested that people with cancer may be more likely to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 or develop COVID-19 than people without cancer, due to increased health services contact and/or immunocompromise. While some studies were criticised due to small patient numbers and methodological limitations, they created or reinforced concerns of clinicians and people with cancer. These risks are also important in COVID-19 vaccine prioritisation decisions. We performed a systematic review to critically assess and summarise the early literature. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search of Medline/Embase/BioRxiv/MedRxiv/SSRN databases including peer-reviewed journal articles, letters/commentaries, and non-peer-reviewed pre-print articles for 1 January-1 July 2020. The primary endpoints were diagnosis of COVID-19 and positive SARS-CoV-2 test. We assessed risk of bias using a tool adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twelve studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. All four studies of COVID-19 incidence (including 24,181,727 individuals, 125,649 with pre-existing cancer) reported that people with cancer had higher COVID-19 incidence rates. Eight studies reported SARS-CoV-2 test positivity for > 472,000 individuals, 48,370 with pre-existing cancer. Seven of these studies comparing people with any and without cancer, were pooled using random effects [pooled odds ratio 0.91, 95 %CI: 0.57-1.47; unadjusted for age, sex, or comorbidities]. Two studies suggested people with active or haematological cancer had lower risk of a positive test. All 12 studies had high risk of bias; none included universal or random COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 testing. CONCLUSIONS: The early literature on susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 for people with cancer is characterised by pervasive biases and limited data. To provide high-quality evidence to inform decision-making, studies of risk of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 for people with cancer should control for other potential modifiers of infection risk, including age, sex, comorbidities, exposure to the virus, protective measures taken, and vaccination, in addition to stratifying analyses by cancer type, stage at diagnosis, and treatment received.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 47: 101375, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783295

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, tobacco smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced nations to take unprecedented measures, including 'lockdowns' that might impact tobacco smoking behaviour. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess smoking behaviour changes during the early pre-vaccination phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Methods: We searched Medline/Embase/PsycINFO/BioRxiv/MedRxiv/SSRN databases (January-November 2020) for published and pre-print articles that reported specific smoking behaviour changes or intentions after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used random-effects models to pool prevalence ratios comparing the prevalence of smoking during and before the pandemic, and the prevalence of smoking behaviour changes during the pandemic. The PROSPERO registration number for this systematic review was CRD42020206383. Findings: 31 studies were included in meta-analyses, with smoking data for 269,164 participants across 24 countries. The proportion of people smoking during the pandemic was lower than that before, with a pooled prevalence ratio of 0·87 (95%CI:0·79-0·97). Among people who smoke, 21% (95%CI:14-30%) smoked less, 27% (95%CI:22-32%) smoked more, 50% (95%CI:41%-58%) had unchanged smoking and 4% (95%CI:1-9%) reported quitting smoking. Among people who did not smoke, 2% (95%CI:1-3%) started smoking during the pandemic. Heterogeneity was high in all meta-analyses and so the pooled estimates should be interpreted with caution (I2 >91% and p-heterogeneity<0·001). Almost all studies were at high risk of bias due to use of non-representative samples, non-response bias, and utilisation of non-validated questions. Interpretation: Smoking behaviour changes during the first phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 were highly mixed. Meta-analyses indicated that there was a relative reduction in overall smoking prevalence during the pandemic, while similar proportions of people who smoke smoked more or smoked less, although heterogeneity was high. Implementation of evidence-based tobacco control policies and programs, including tobacco cessation services, have an important role in ensuring that the COVID-19 pandemic does not exacerbate the smoking pandemic and associated adverse health outcomes. Funding: No specific funding was received for this study.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 308-347, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433171

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Europe is an important focus for compiling accurate and up-to-date world cancer statistics owing to its large share of the world's total cancer burden. This article presents incidence and mortality estimates for 25 major cancers across 40 individual countries within European areas and the European Union (EU-27) for the year 2020. METHODS: The estimated national incidence and mortality rates are based on statistical methodology previously applied and verified using the most recently collected incidence data from 151 population-based cancer registries, mortality data and 2020 population estimates. RESULTS: Estimates reveal 4 million new cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 1.9 million cancer-related deaths. The most common cancers are: breast in women (530,000 cases), colorectum (520,000), lung (480,000) and prostate (470,000). These four cancers account for half the overall cancer burden in Europe. The most common causes of cancer deaths are: lung (380,000), colorectal (250,000), breast (140,000) and pancreatic (130,000) cancers. In EU-27, the estimated new cancer cases are approximately 1.4 million in males and 1.2 million in females, with over 710,000 estimated cancer deaths in males and 560,000 in females. CONCLUSION: The 2020 estimates provide a basis for establishing priorities in cancer-control measures across Europe. The long-established role of cancer registries in cancer surveillance and the evaluation of cancer control measures remain fundamental in formulating and adapting national cancer plans and pan-European health policies. Given the estimates are built on recorded data prior to the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), they do not take into account the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Young Adult
5.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 100: 102290, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401405

ABSTRACT

With the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target of a one-third reduction in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) less than a decade away, it is timely to assess national progress in reducing premature deaths from the two leading causes of mortality worldwide. We examine trends in the probability of dying ages 30-70 from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer 2000-19 in 10 middle-income (MICs) and 10 high-income (HICs) countries with high quality data. We then predict whether the SDG target will be met in each country for CVD, cancer and for the four main NCDs combined. Downward trends were more evident in HICs relative to the MICs, and for CVD relative to cancer. CVD and cancer declines ranged from 30-60% and 20-30% in HICs over the 20-year period, but progress was less uniform among the MICs. Premature deaths from cancer exceeded CVD in nine of the 10 HICs by 2000 and in all 10 by 2019; in contrast, CVD mortality exceeded cancer in all 10 MICs in 2000 and remained the leading cause in eight countries by 2019. Two of the 10 MICs (Colombia and Kazakhstan) and seven of the HICs (Australia, Chile, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Slovakia, and the U.K.) are predicted to meet the SDG NCDs target. Whether countries are on course to meet the target by 2030 reflects changing risk factor profiles and the extent to which effective preventative and medical care interventions have been implemented. In addition, lessons can be learned given people living with NCDs are more susceptible to severe COVID-19 illness and death.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Global Health/trends , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Sustainable Development , Adult , Aged , Developed Countries , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Int J Cancer ; 150(2): 273-278, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384183

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to national health systems and impacted health outcomes worldwide. However, the extent to which surveillance systems, such as population-based cancer registration, have been affected was not reported. Here we sought to evaluate the effect of the pandemic on registry operations across different areas and development levels worldwide. We investigated the impact of COVID-19 on three main areas of cancer registry operations: staffing, financing and data collection. An online survey was administered to 750 member registries of the International Association for Cancer Registries. Among 212 responding registries from 90 countries, 65.6% reported a disruption in operations, ranging between 45% in south-eastern Asia and 87% in the Latin America and Caribbean. Active data collection was disrupted more than case notifications or hybrid methods. In countries categorized with low Human Development Index (HDI), a greater number of registries reported a negative impact (81.3%) than in very high HDI countries (57.8%). This contrast was highest in term of impact on financing: 9/16 (56%) registries in low HDI countries reported a current or an expected decline in funding, compared to 7/108 (7%) in very high HDI countries. With many cancer registries worldwide reporting disruption to their operations during the early COVID-19 pandemic, urgent actions are needed to ensure their continuity. Governmental commitment to support future registry operations as an asset to disease control, alongside a move toward electronic reporting systems will help to ensure the sustainability of cancer surveillance worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635339

ABSTRACT

The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Public Health/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Public Health/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination/methods , World Health Organization , Young Adult
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