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1.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-12, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predict the risk of loneliness for people with dementia and carers during a pandemic. METHODS: People with dementia and their carers completed assessments before (July 2019-March 2020; 206 dyads) and after (July-October 2020) the first Covid-19 'lockdown' in England. At follow-up, the analytic sample comprised 67 people with dementia and 108 carers. We built a longitudinal path model with loneliness as an observed outcome. Carer type and social contacts at both measurements were considered. Other social resources (quality of relationship, formal day activities), wellbeing (anxiety, psychological wellbeing) and cognitive impairment were measured with initial level and change using latent growth curves. We adjusted for socio-demographic factors and health at baseline. RESULTS: In carers, higher levels of loneliness were directly associated with non-spouse coresident carer type, level and increase of anxiety in carer, more formal day activities, and higher cognitive impairment in the person with dementia. In people with dementia, non-spouse coresident carer type, and higher initial levels of social resources, wellbeing, and cognitive impairment predicted the changes in these factors; this produced indirect effects on social contacts and loneliness. CONCLUSION: Loneliness in the Covid-19 pandemic appears to be shaped by different mechanisms for people with dementia and their carers. The results suggest that carers of those with dementia may prioritize providing care that protects the person with dementia from loneliness at the cost of experiencing loneliness themselves. Directions for the promotion of adaptive social care during the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond are discussed.

2.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 8(1): e12236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819398

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has impacted people with dementia and their family carers, yet little is known about effects on overall quality of life. Methods: In a UK cohort study, pre- and post-pandemic data were collected from 114 carers and 93 recently diagnosed people with dementia. Latent growth curve modeling examined change in quality of life. Results: Carers reported significant decline in quality of life, although no change was demonstrated by people with dementia. In multivariable analyses, higher levels of cognitive impairment, deprivation, study site, and lower number of memory clinic contacts were associated with greater decline in carer quality of life. Discussion: Maintaining life quality for people with dementia during the pandemic appears to have come at the expense of their family carers. This inequity has fallen hardest on those caring for people with more severe dementia, in deprived areas, and with least support from memory services. These effects may be prevented or reversed by post-diagnostic care.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310692

ABSTRACT

Background: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework was utilized to design an evidence-based practice, Cocoa360’s COVID Preparedness & Outbreak Prevention Plan (CoCoPOPP), for rural communities in Ghana. Through participatory academic-community team discussion, interactive dissemination, systematic review of evidence about community-based interventions during Ebola, HIV/AIDS, and Influenza outbreaks and effective engagement with local and national stakeholders, CoCoPOPP was developed to be consistent with the PARIHS framework. Methods: : Applying the three core elements of the PARIHS framework (evidence, context, and facilitation), the designers developed orientation, logistic needs and planning, and social mobilization. Components of CoCoPOPP also included participant recruitment and training, communication, research, monitoring & evaluation plan, execution, technical assistance, and facilitation. Results: : This intervention achieved three (3) main aims: (1) meet a pressing health need during the COVID-19 pandemic in local underserved settings, (2) ensure that the strategy is informed by high-quality evidence from similar interventions in past outbreaks, and (3) evaluate and learn from research on interventions to garner data. Beyond the impact on health outcomes and healthcare services utilization, CoCoPOPP sought to garner data for organizational use and to share insights on pandemic management and control with the Ghanaian government and the broader global health community. Conclusion: The use of evidence-based public health framework, PARIHS, renders CoCoPOPP a replicable community-based model that can be implemented in other rural communities in Ghana and other Sub-Saharan African counties with similar cultural settings.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049762, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376505

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Profiles of high risk for future dementia are well understood and are likely to concern mostly those in low-income and middle-income countries and people at greater disadvantage in high-income countries. Approximately 30%-40% of dementia cases have been estimated to be attributed to modifiable risk factors, including hypertension, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. Tailored interventions targeting these risk factors can potentially prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Mobile health (mHealth) improves accessibility of such prevention strategies in hard-to-reach populations while at the same time tailoring such approaches. In the current study, we will investigate the effectiveness and implementation of a coach-supported mHealth intervention, targeting dementia risk factors, to reduce dementia risk. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The prevention of dementia using mobile phone applications (PRODEMOS) randomised controlled trial will follow an effectiveness-implementation hybrid design, taking place in the UK and China. People are eligible if they are 55-75 years old, of low socioeconomic status (UK) or from the general population (China); have ≥2 dementia risk factors; and own a smartphone. 2400 participants will be randomised to either a coach-supported, interactive mHealth platform, facilitating self-management of dementia risk factors, or a static control platform. The intervention and follow-up period will be 18 months. The primary effectiveness outcome is change in the previously validated Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Ageing and Incidence of Dementia dementia risk score. The main secondary outcomes include improvement of individual risk factors and cost-effectiveness. Implementation outcomes include acceptability, adoption, feasibility and sustainability of the intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PRODEMOS trial is sponsored in the UK by the University of Cambridge and is granted ethical approval by the London-Brighton and Sussex Research Ethics Committee (reference: 20/LO/01440). In China, the trial is approved by the medical ethics committees of Capital Medical University, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Taishan Medical University and Xuanwu Hospital. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15986016.


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Dementia , Mobile Applications , Aged , China , Dementia/prevention & control , Humans , London , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e053371, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To systematically reivew the observational evidence of the effect of school closures and school reopenings on SARS-CoV-2 community transmission. SETTING: Schools (including early years settings, primary schools and secondary schools). INTERVENTION: School closures and reopenings. OUTCOME MEASURE: Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (including any measure of community infections rate, hospital admissions or mortality attributed to COVID-19). METHODS: On 7 January 2021, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, the WHO Global COVID-19 Research Database, ERIC, the British Education Index, the Australian Education Index and Google, searching title and abstracts for terms related to SARS-CoV-2 AND terms related to schools or non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias In Non-randomised Studies of Interventions tool to evaluate bias. RESULTS: We identified 7474 articles, of which 40 were included, with data from 150 countries. Of these, 32 studies assessed school closures and 11 examined reopenings. There was substantial heterogeneity between school closure studies, with half of the studies at lower risk of bias reporting reduced community transmission by up to 60% and half reporting null findings. The majority (n=3 out of 4) of school reopening studies at lower risk of bias reported no associated increases in transmission. CONCLUSIONS: School closure studies were at risk of confounding and collinearity from other non-pharmacological interventions implemented around the same time as school closures, and the effectiveness of closures remains uncertain. School reopenings, in areas of low transmission and with appropriate mitigation measures, were generally not accompanied by increasing community transmission. With such varied evidence on effectiveness, and the harmful effects, policymakers should take a measured approach before implementing school closures; and should look to reopen schools in times of low transmission, with appropriate mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Australia , Bias , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
6.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 8, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage (UHC) embedded within the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, is defined by the World Health Organization as all individuals having access to required health services, of sufficient quality, without suffering financial hardship. Effective strategies for financing healthcare are critical in achieving this goal yet remain a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This systematic review aims to determine reported health financing mechanisms in SSA within the published literature and summarize potential learnings. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted aligned with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. On 19 to 30 July 2019, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health Database, the Cochrane Library, Scopus and JSTOR were searched for literature published from 2005. Studies describing health financing approaches for UHC in SSA were included. Evidence was synthesised in form of a table and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Of all records, 39 papers were selected for inclusion. Among the included studies, most studies were conducted in Kenya (n = 7), followed by SSA as a whole (n = 6) and Nigeria (n = 5). More than two thirds of the selected studies reported the importance of equitable national health insurance schemes for UHC. The results indicate that a majority of health care revenue in SSA is from direct out-of-pocket payments. Another common financing mechanism was donor funding, which was reported by most of the studies. The average quality score of all studies was 81.6%, indicating a high appraisal score. The interrater reliability Cohen's kappa score, κ=0.43 (p = 0.002), which showed a moderate level of agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate health financing strategies that safeguard financial risk protection underpin sustainable health services and the attainment of UHC. It is evident from the review that innovative health financing strategies in SSA are needed. Some limitations of this review include potentially skewed interpretations due to publication bias and a higher frequency of publications included from two countries in SSA. Establishing evidence-based and multi-sectoral strategies tailored to country contexts remains imperative.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Financing , Universal Health Insurance/economics , Africa South of the Sahara , Universal Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data
8.
Lancet ; 397(10288): 1979-1991, 2021 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219658

ABSTRACT

The demographics of the UK population are changing and so is the need for health care. In this Health Policy, we explore the current health of the population, the changing health needs, and future threats to health. Relative to other high-income countries, the UK is lagging on many health outcomes, such as life expectancy and infant mortality, and there is a growing burden of mental illness. Successes exist, such as the striking improvements in oral health, but inequalities in health persist as well. The growth of the ageing population relative to the working-age population, the rise of multimorbidity, and persistent health inequalities, particularly for preventable illness, are all issues that the National Health Service (NHS) will face in the years to come. Meeting the challenges of the future will require an increased focus on health promotion and disease prevention, involving a more concerted effort to understand and tackle the multiple social, environmental, and economic factors that lie at the heart of health inequalities. The immediate priority of the NHS will be to mitigate the wider and long-term health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, but it must also strengthen its resilience to reduce the impact of other threats to health, such as the UK leaving the EU, climate change, and antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Demography/trends , State Medicine/organization & administration , Aging , COVID-19 , Cost of Illness , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Humans , Life Expectancy , Maternal-Child Health Services , Mental Health , Multimorbidity/trends , Oral Health/trends , State Medicine/trends , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(3): 209-212, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842437

ABSTRACT

This paper reflects concerns that funding and attention should be expanded from the important focus on those suffering and dying from COVID-19, and the safety and resources of healthcare professionals, to address wider questions on the (unequal) health and well-being impacts of COVID-19 and associated response measures. While immediate priorities such as those outlined in the WHO research agenda are undoubtedly important, additional urgent questions must be addressed. These include questions focused on (1) the non-virus impacts of preparing health and social care systems to cope with COVID-19 and (2) the health effects mediated by the educational, economic and social injuries sustained during the pandemic. Long-term, sustained and co-ordinated interdisciplinary research funding will be needed to address the long-lasting impacts of COVID-19 and its response measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Planning/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Research/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel , Humans , Population Health , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class
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