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1.
Infection ; 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048641

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Objectives of this study, as part of a nation-wide HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) evaluation project, were to determine the incidence of infections with HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis A/B/C in persons using PrEP, and to describe the health care funded PrEP use in Germany. Additionally, factors associated with chlamydia/gonorrhea and syphilis infections were assessed. METHODS: Anonymous data of PrEP users were collected at 47 HIV-specialty centers from 09/2019-12/2020. Incidence rates were calculated per 100 person years (py). Using longitudinal mixed models, we analyzed risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). RESULTS: 4620 PrEP users were included: 99.2% male, median age 38 years (IQR 32-45), 98.6% men who have sex with men (MSM). The median duration of PrEP exposure was 451 days (IQR 357-488), totaling 5132 py. Four HIV infections were diagnosed, incidence rate 0,078/100py (95% CI 0.029-0.208). For two, suboptimal adherence was reported and in the third case, suboptimal adherence and resistance to emtricitabine were observed. One infection was likely acquired before PrEP start. Incidence rates were 21.6/100py for chlamydia, 23.7/100py for gonorrhea, 10.1/100py for syphilis and 55.4/100py for any STI and decreased significantly during the observation period. 65.5% of syphilis, 55.6% of chlamydia and 50.1% of gonorrhea cases were detected by screening of asymptomatic individuals. In a multivariable analysis among MSM younger age, PrEP start before health insurance coverage and daily PrEP were associated with greater risk for chlamydia/gonorrhea. Symptom triggered testing and a history of STI were associated with a higher risk for chlamydia/gonorrhea and syphilis. A significantly lower risk for chlamydia/gonorrhea and syphilis was found for observations during the COVID-19 pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: We found that HIV-PrEP is almost exclusively used by MSM in Germany. A very low incidence of HIV infection and decreasing incidence rates of STIs were found in this cohort of PrEP users. The results were influenced by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Rollout of PrEP covered by health insurance should be continued to prevent HIV infections. Increased PrEP availability to people at risk of HIV infection through the elimination of barriers requires further attention. Investigation and monitoring with a longer follow-up would be of value.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 708694, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463523

ABSTRACT

Two COVID-19 outbreaks occurred in residential buildings with overcrowded housing conditions in the city of Göttingen in Germany during May and June 2020, when COVID-19 infection incidences were low across the rest of the country, with a national incidence of 2.6/100,000 population. The outbreaks increased the local incidence in the city of Göttingen to 123.5/100,000 in June 2020. Many of the affected residents were living in precarious conditions and experienced language barriers. The outbreaks were characterized by high case numbers and attack rates among the residents, many asymptomatic cases, a comparatively young population, and substantial outbreak control measures implemented by local authorities. We analyzed national and local surveillance data, calculated age-, and gender-specific attack rates and performed whole genome sequencing analysis to describe the outbreak and characteristics of the infected population. The authorities' infection control measures included voluntary and compulsory testing of all residents and mass quarantine. Public health measures, such as the general closure of schools and a public space as well as the prohibition of team sports at local level, were also implemented in the district to limit the outbreaks locally. The outbreaks were under control by the end of June 2020. We describe the measures to contain the outbreaks, the challenges experienced and lessons learned. We discuss how public health measures can be planned and implemented through consideration of the needs and vulnerabilities of affected populations. In order to avoid coercive measures, barrier-free communication, with language translation when needed, and consideration of socio-economic circumstances of affected populations are crucial for controlling infectious disease transmission in an outbreak effectively and in a timely way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Housing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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