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Lancet Oncology ; 23(7):E334-E347, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1980468


The International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer is an independent academic working group of experts aimed at establishing global consensus for the treatment and prophylaxis of cancer-associated thrombosis. The 2013, 2016, and 2019 International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer clinical practice guidelines have been made available through a free, web-based mobile phone application. The 2022 clinical practice guidelines, which are based on a literature review up to Jan 1, 2022, include guidance for patients with cancer and with COVID-19. Key recommendations (grade 1A or 1B) include: (1) low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) for the initial (first 10 days) treatment and maintenance treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis;(2) direct oral anticoagulants for the initial treatment and maintenance treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis in patients who are not at high risk of gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding, in the absence of strong drug-drug interactions or of gastrointestinal absorption impairment;(3) LMWHs or direct oral anticoagulants for a minimum of 6 months to treat cancer-associated thrombosis;(4) extended prophylaxis (4 weeks) with LMWHs to prevent postoperative venous thromboembolism after major abdominopelvic surgery in patients not at high risk of bleeding;and (5) primary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism with LMWHs or direct oral anticoagulants (rivaroxaban or apixaban) in ambulatory patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer who are treated with anticancer therapy and have a low risk of bleeding.

Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):314-315, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880037


Background: Ending the HIV Epidemic by 2030 initiative includes phylogenetics as a molecular framework to track patterns of HIV spread. In this study, phylogenetics was combined with available epidemiological data to elucidate track evolving trends in HIV-1 spread among Men having Sex with Men (MSM) and Heterosexual (HET) populations in Quebec. Methods: Phylogenetic linkage analysis was performed using MEGA-10 and HIV-TRACE/Microbe-TRACE methodologies. New infections genotyped between 2014-2020 were stratified into groups: i) Subtype B MSM (subtype B male singletons/male-male clusters, n=1812);ii) Subtype B Heterosexual (female singletons/female-male clusters, n=432), including migrants from the Caribbean and Americas;and iii) Non-B subtype (n=737) epidemics. Test requisition data and clinical data from Clinique Actuel (n=141 and 50, 2016-2018) monitored epidemiological features in a subset of newly diagnosed persons. Results: Among MSM, annual new infections declined by 20% and 40% over the 2015-2017 and 2018-2020 periods, respectively. Overall, 45% of new infections in MSM were associated with 20 active large clusters, adding 8-96 infections/clusters from 2014-2020. Clinical data showed 37% newly diagnosed MSM were born outside Canada, 28% of whom were linked to large cluster outbreaks. Among heterosexuals with subtype B infections, there was a 31% increase from 2015-2017 followed by a 36% decline from 2018-2020 post-COVID. Of note, large cluster HET outbreaks occurred in Quebec City, Richelieu, and Northern Quebec Overall, non-B subtype infections remained steady (median 100 annually) over the 2014 to 2020 period. Several non-B subtype clusters reflect the domestic introduction and spread of subtype CRF02- AG variants. Cluster membership and cluster size was associated with recent stage infection, viral sequence recency (based on % mixed base calls) and younger age of members within individual clusters. Conclusion: Annual numbers of new HIV-1 infections have steadily declined among MSM post-2008, concomitant to improved HIV prevention paradigms. Epidemic control among MSM and HET groups has been thwarted by large cluster outbreaks. Recent arrivals to Quebec accounted for a growing number of subtype B and non-B subtype infections. HIV prevention efforts must continue in the post-COVID era, tailored to avert transmission cascades in younger persons and recent migrant populations.

Thrombosis Update ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1829604


Cancer patients exhibit an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), with VTE being the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The implementation of lockdowns following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in decreased mobility and delayed access to care, thus further increasing the susceptibility to VTE. Cancer patients may also be at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and have been shown to be more likely to experience severe COVID-19 disease compared to patients without cancer. Given that both cancer and COVID-19 exhibit a hypercoagulable state, stasis of blood flow, and endothelial injury, cancer patients with COVID-19 constitute a vulnerable population with a high risk of thrombosis and bleeding. However, to date there are limited studies evaluating whether cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have a higher VTE incidence than COVID-19 patients without cancer, how to assess the risk of VTE, prophylaxis and treatment in this special population. Herein, we highlight the urgent need for studies in cancer patients with COVID-19 to ensure appropriate patient care and improve clinical outcomes. © 2022 The Authors

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 15(6):726-737, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1703937


A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is largely associated with various coagulopathies, which can lead to either bleeding and thrombocytopenia or hypercoagulation and thrombosis. Thrombohemorrhagic complications also could accompany the development of cancer process. In addition, circulating inflammatory biomarkers such as fibrin, D-dimer, P-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) typical to both coronavirus infection and malignancy process are of special interest. In this review, we discuss potential interplay between COVID-19 and cancer related to endothelial dysfunction, platelets, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Most importantly, patients should be treated in early stage of the disease process when elevated levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, vWF, and P-selectin are observed. The level of these markers will rise rapidly upon disease progression, followed by a cytokine storm, would evidence about a poor prognosis. © 2021 IRBIS LLC. All Rights Reserved.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 15(5):562-572, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1551950


After the vaccination campaign initiation in Europe and the UK, reports of rare cases of atypical thrombosis, including sinus vein thrombosis and splanchnic venous thrombosis, began to appear in association with the use of AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1) and J&J/Janssen adenovirus vector vaccines. The syndrome called VITT (vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia) is manifested as thrombosis simultaneously with decreased platelet count, significantly increased D-dimer levels and detected anti-factor 4 platelet (PF4) antibodies. We present a detailed review on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of VITT, which by its nature is an immune complication similar to the processes occurring in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). All international and national organizations and regulatory authorities, including experts in the field of thrombosis and hemostasis and the VITT expert council recommend continuing the prompt mass vaccination against COVID-19 as the only method able to reduce the incidence of severe cases, stop the spread of COVID-19 infection and emergence of new dangerous mutations in the viral genome. Failure to vaccinate poses an incomparably greater risk of fatal thrombotic and inflammatory complications associated with infections, compared with the risks of extremely rare adverse events that can occur after vaccination. It should be noted that information on VITT, described as a sporadic phenomenon of abnormal immune response to some variants of vaccines against COVID-19, cannot be translated to other vaccines (including those registered in the Russian Federation) and, moreover, cannot be a reason to refuse their administration. © 2021 Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction. All rights reserved.

South African Medical Journal ; 111(6):535-537, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1264653


There have recently been safety concerns regarding an increased risk of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) following administration of SARS-CoV-2 adenoviral vector vaccines. The Southern African Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis reviewed the emerging literature on this idiosyncratic complication. A draft document was produced and revised by consensus agreement by a panel of professionals from various specialties. The recommendations were adjudicated by independent international experts to avoid local bias. We present concise, practical guidelines for the clinical management of VITT.