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2.
Hepatology ; 76(6): 1563-1575, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholestasis is associated with disease severity and worse outcome in COVID-19. Cases of secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been described. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 between 03/2020 and 07/2021 were included. Patients were stratified as having (i) no chronic liver disease (CLD), (ii) non-advanced CLD (non-ACLD), or (iii) advanced CLD (ACLD). Patients with CLD and non-COVID-19 pneumonia were matched to patients with CLD and COVID-19 as a control cohort. Liver chemistries before (Pre) and at first, second, and third blood withdrawal after SARS-CoV-2 infection (T1-T3) and at last available time point (last) were recorded. A total of 496 patients were included. In total, 13.1% (n = 65) had CLD (non-ACLD: 70.8%; ACLD: 29.2%); the predominant etiology was NAFLD/NASH (60.0%). COVID-19-related liver injury was more common among patients with CLD (24.6% vs. 10.6%; p = 0.001). After SARS-CoV-2 infection, patients with CLD exhibited progressive cholestasis with persistently increasing levels of alkaline phosphatase (Pre: 91.0 vs. T1: 121.0 vs. last: 175.0 U/L; p < 0.001) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (Pre: 95.0 vs. T1: 135.0 vs. last: 202.0 U/L; p = 0.001). A total of 23.1% of patients with CLD (n = 15/65) developed cholestatic liver failure (cholestasis plus bilirubin ≥6 mg/dl) during COVID-19, and 15.4% of patients (n = 10/65) developed SSC. SSC was significantly more frequent among patients with CLD and COVID-19 than in patients with CLD and non-COVID-19 pneumonia (p = 0.040). COVID-19-associated SSC occurred predominantly in patients with NAFLD/NASH and metabolic risk factors. A total of 26.3% (n = 5/19) of patients with ACLD experienced hepatic decompensation after SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: About 20% of patients with CLD develop progressive cholestasis after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with NAFLD/NASH and metabolic risk factors are at particular risk for developing cholestatic liver failure and/or SSC after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Liver Failure , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/complications , Cholestasis/complications
3.
Liver Int ; 42(6): 1297-1307, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) causes considerable mortality worldwide. We aimed to investigate the frequency and predictive role of abnormal liver chemistries in different age groups. METHODS: Patients with positive severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test between 03/2020-07/2021 at the Vienna General Hospital were included. Patients were stratified for age: 18-39 vs. 40-69 vs. ≥70 years (y). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and total bilirubin (BIL) were recorded. RESULTS: 900 patients (18-39 years: 32.2%, 40-69 years: 39.7%, ≥70 years: 28.1%) were included. Number of comorbidities, median D-dimer and C-reactive protein increased with age. During COVID-19, AST/ALT and ALP/GGT levels significantly increased. Elevated hepatocellular transaminases (AST/ALT) and cholestasis parameters (ALP/GGT/BIL) were observed in 40.3% (n  = 262/650) and 45.0% (n  = 287/638) of patients respectively. Liver-related mortality was highest among patients with pre-existing decompensated liver disease (28.6%, p < .001). 1.7% of patients without pre-existing liver disease died of liver-related causes, that is consequences of hepatic dysfunction or acute liver failure. Importantly, COVID-19-associated liver injury (16.0%, p < .001), abnormal liver chemistries and liver-related mortality (6.5%, p < .001) were most frequent among 40-69 years old patients. Elevated AST and BIL after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR independently predicted mortality in the overall cohort and in 40-69 years old patients. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the COVID-19 patients exhibit abnormal hepatocellular and cholestasis-related liver chemistries with 40-69 years old patients being at particularly high risk for COVID-19-related liver injury and liver-related mortality. Elevated AST and BIL after SARS-CoV-2 infection are independent predictors of mortality, especially in patients aged 40-69 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholestasis , Liver Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin/metabolism , Humans , Liver , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 651484, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430688

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the specific cytokine profile in peripheral blood during the early onset of COVID-19 infection. This was a cross-sectional exploratory, single center study. A total of 55 plasma samples were studied. Serum samples of adults showing symptoms of COVID-19 infection who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (CoV+, n=18) at the COVID-19 outpatient clinic of the Medical University of Vienna were screened for immune activation markers by Luminex technology. Additionally, age and gender-matched serum samples of patients displaying COVID-19 associated symptoms, but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-, n=16) as well as healthy controls (HC, n=21) were analyzed. COVID-19 positive (CoV+) patients showed a specific upregulation of BLC (141; 74-189 pg/mL), SCD30 (273; 207-576 pg/mL), MCP-2 (18; 12-30 pg/mL) and IP-10 (37; 23-96 pg/mL), compared to patients with COVID19-like symptoms but negative PCR test (CoV-), BLC (61; 22-100 pg/mL), sCD30L (161; 120-210 pg/mL), MCP-2 (8; 5-12 pg/mL) and IP-10 (9; 6-12 pg/mL) and healthy controls (HC) (BLC 22; 11-36 pg/mL, sCD30 74; 39-108 pg/mL, MCP-2 6; 3-9. pg/mL, IP-10 = 8; 5-13). The markers APRIL, sIL-2R, IL7, MIF, MIP-1b, SCF, SDF-1a, sTNF-RII were elevated in both CoV+ and CoV- patient groups compared to healthy controls. HGF, MDC and VEGF-A were elevated in CoV- but not CoV+ compared to healthy controls. BLC, sCD30, MCP-2 and IP-10 are specifically induced during early stages of COVID-19 infection and might constitute attractive targets for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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