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Transplantation ; 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227254


BACKGROUND: Postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon and manifested by long-lasting cognitive, mental, and physical symptoms beyond the acute infection period. We aimed to estimate the frequency of PASC symptoms in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and compared their frequency between those with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization and those who did not require hospitalization. METHODS: A survey consisting of 7 standardized questionnaires was administered to 111 SOT recipients with history of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed >4 wk before survey administration. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) time from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was 167 d (138-221). Hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 33 (30%) participants. Symptoms after the COVID episode were perceived as following: significant trauma (53%), cognitive decline (50%), fatigue (41%), depression (36%), breathing problems (35%), anxiety (23%), dysgeusia (22%), dysosmia (21%), and pain (19%). Hospitalized patients had poorer median scores in cognition (Quick Dementia Rating System survey score: 2.0 versus 0.5, P = 0.02), quality of life (Health-related Quality of Life survey: 2.0 versus 1.0, P = 0.015), physical health (Global physical health scale: 10.0 versus 11.0, P = 0.005), respiratory status (Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale: 1.0 versus 0.0, P = 0.035), and pain (Pain score: 3 versus 0 out of 10, P = 0.003). Among patients with infection >6 mo prior, some symptoms were still present as following: abnormal breathing (42%), cough (40%), dysosmia (29%), and dysgeusia (34%). CONCLUSIONS: SOT recipients reported a high frequency of PASC symptoms. Multidisciplinary approach is needed to care for these patients beyond the acute phase.

Chest ; 161(1): e63-e64, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996068
Health Secur ; 20(3): 230-237, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901034


Latinx immigrants have been profoundly impacted by COVID-19. As the Johns Hopkins Health System faced a surge in admissions of limited English proficiency patients with COVID-19, it became evident that an institutional strategy to address the needs of this patient population was needed. The Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM) Latinx Anchor Strategy was established in April 2020 with diverse stakeholder engagement to identify the most urgent community needs and develop timely solutions. The JHM Latinx Anchor Strategy provided a platform for information sharing to promote equitable access to resources for Latinxs with limited English proficiency who were impacted by COVID-19. Leveraging institutional, community, and government resources and expertise, the JHM Latinx Anchor Strategy helped establish interventions to improve access to COVID-19 testing and care for low-income immigrants without a primary care doctor and helped mitigate economic vulnerability through the distribution of food for 2,677 individuals and cash to 446 families and 95 individuals (May to August 2020). Expanded linguistic and culturally competent communication through webinars and livestream events reached more than 10,000 community members and partners. Over 7,500 limited English proficiency patients received linguistically congruent direct patient services through the Esperanza Center bilingual hotline, community testing resulting efforts, and inpatient consultations. The first stage of the JHM Latinx Anchor Strategy relied heavily on volunteer efforts. Funding for a sustainable response will be required to address ongoing COVID-19 needs, including expansion of the bilingual/bicultural healthcare workforce, expanded access to primary care, and investments in population health strategies addressing social determinants of health.

COVID-19 , Baltimore/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Communication , Health Personnel , Humans
J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry ; 63(2): 133-143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804387


BACKGROUND: There is a limited understanding of the cognitive and psychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 during the post-acute phase, particularly among racially and ethnically diverse patients. OBJECTIVE: We sought to prospectively characterize cognition, mental health symptoms, and functioning approximately four months after an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 in a racially and ethnically diverse group of patients. METHODS: Approximately four months after COVID-19 diagnosis, patients in the Johns Hopkins Post-Acute COVID-19 Team Pulmonary Clinic underwent a clinical telephone-based assessment of cognition, depression, anxiety, trauma, and function. RESULTS: Most Johns Hopkins Post-Acute COVID-19 Team patients assessed were women (59%) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups (65%). Of 82 patients, 67% demonstrated ≥1 abnormally low cognitive score. Patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) stays displayed greater breadth and severity of impairment than those requiring less intensive treatment. Processing speed (35%), verbal fluency (26%-32%), learning (27%), and memory (27%) were most commonly impaired. Among all patients, 35% had moderate symptoms of depression (23%), anxiety (15%), or functional decline (15%); 25% of ICU patients reported trauma-related distress. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional decline did not differ by post-ICU versus non-ICU status and were unrelated to global cognitive composite scores. CONCLUSIONS: At approximately 4 months after acute illness, cognitive dysfunction, emotional distress, and functional decline were common among a diverse clinical sample of COVID-19 survivors varying in acute illness severity. Patients requiring ICU stays demonstrated greater breadth and severity of cognitive impairment than those requiring less intensive treatment. Findings help extend our understanding of the nature, severity, and potential duration of neuropsychiatric morbidity after COVID-19 and point to the need for longitudinal assessment of cognitive and mental health outcomes among COVID-19 survivors of different demographic backgrounds and illness characteristics.

COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19 Testing , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1328-1341, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537208


As of July 31, 2021, SARS-CoV-2 had infected almost 200 million people worldwide. The growing burden of survivorship is substantial in terms of the complexity of long-term health effects and the number of people affected. Persistent symptoms have been reported in patients with both mild and severe acute COVID-19, including those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Early reports on the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) indicate that fatigue, dyspnoea, cough, headache, loss of taste or smell, and cognitive or mental health impairments are among the most common symptoms. These complex, multifactorial impairments across the domains of physical, cognitive, and mental health require a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to management. Decades of research on the multifaceted needs of and models of care for patients with post-intensive care syndrome provide a framework for the development of PASC clinics to address the immediate needs of both hospitalised and non-hospitalised survivors of COVID-19. Such clinics could also provide a platform for rigorous research into the natural history of PASC and the potential benefits of therapeutic interventions.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Fatigue , Humans , Survivors , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Chest ; 160(4): 1155-1156, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466106

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hospitals , Humans
Chest ; 160(2): 671-677, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163508


Survivors of COVID-19 are a vulnerable population, with complex needs because of lingering symptoms and complications across multiple organ systems. Those who required hospitalization or intensive care are also at risk for post-hospital syndrome and post-ICU syndromes, with attendant cognitive, psychological, and physical impairments, and high levels of health care utilization. Effective ambulatory care for COVID-19 survivors requires coordination across multiple subspecialties, which can be burdensome if not well coordinated. With growing recognition of these needs, post-COVID-19 clinics are being created across the country. We describe the design and implementation of multidisciplinary post-COVID-19 clinics at two academic health systems, Johns Hopkins and the University of California-San Francisco. We highlight components of the model which should be replicated across sites, while acknowledging opportunities to tailor offerings to the local institutional context. Our goal is to provide a replicable framework for others to create these much-needed care delivery models for survivors of COVID-19.

Aftercare/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/organization & administration , Survivors , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Design and Construction , Humans , Time Factors
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064785


Mortality from COVID-19 has obscured a subtler crisis - the swelling ranks of COVID-19 survivors. After critical illness, patients often suffer post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses physical, cognitive, and/or mental health impairments that are often long-lasting barriers to resuming a meaningful life. Some deficits after COVID-19 critical illness will require otolaryngologic expertise for years after hospital discharge. There are roles for all subspecialties in preventing, diagnosing, or treating sequelae of COVID-19. Otolaryngologist leadership in multidisciplinary efforts ensures coordinated care. Timely tracheostomy, when indicated, may shorten the course of intensive care unit stay and thereby potentially reduce the impairments associated with PICS. Otolaryngologists can provide expertise in olfactory disorders; thrombotic sequelae of hearing loss and vertigo; and laryngotracheal injuries that impair speech, voice, swallowing, communication, and breathing. In the aftermath of severe COVID-19, otolaryngologists are poised to lead efforts in early identification and intervention for impairments affecting patients' quality of life.

COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Otolaryngologists , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Quality of Life , Survivorship , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2