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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264855, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736511

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 the world has been facing the outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Identification of infected patients and discrimination from other respiratory infections have so far been accomplished by using highly specific real-time PCRs. Here we present a rapid multiplex approach (RespiCoV), combining highly multiplexed PCRs and MinION sequencing suitable for the simultaneous screening for 41 viral and five bacterial agents related to respiratory tract infections, including the human coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, OC43, 229E, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. RespiCoV was applied to 150 patient samples with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared with specific real-time PCR. Additionally, several respiratory tract pathogens were identified in samples tested positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. Finally, RespiCoV was experimentally compared to the commercial RespiFinder 2SMART multiplex screening assay (PathoFinder, The Netherlands).


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , RNA Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nanopores , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 651151, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317232

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019, the scientific community has been sharing data on epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and whole-genomic sequences almost in real time. The latter have already facilitated phylogenetic analyses, transmission chain tracking, protein modeling, the identification of possible therapeutic targets, timely risk assessment, and identification of novel variants. We have established and evaluated an amplification-based approach for whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. It can be used on the miniature-sized and field-deployable sequencing device Oxford Nanopore MinION, with sequencing library preparation time of 10 min. We show that the generation of 50,000 total reads per sample is sufficient for a near complete coverage (>90%) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome directly from patient samples even if virus concentration is low (Ct 35, corresponding to approximately 5 genome copies per reaction). For patient samples with high viral load (Ct 18-24), generation of 50,000 reads in 1-2 h was shown to be sufficient for a genome coverage of >90%. Comparison to Illumina data reveals an accuracy that suffices to identify virus mutants. AmpliCoV can be applied whenever sequence information on SARS-CoV-2 is required rapidly, for instance for the identification of circulating virus mutants.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7430, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162021

ABSTRACT

Bats are known to be reservoirs of several highly pathogenic viruses. Hence, the interest in bat virus discovery has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. So far, most studies have focused on a single type of virus detection method, either PCR, virus isolation or virome sequencing. Here we present a comprehensive approach in virus discovery, using all three discovery methods on samples from the same bats. By family-specific PCR screening we found sequences of paramyxoviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and one coronavirus. By cell culture we isolated a novel bat adenovirus and bat orthoreovirus. Virome sequencing revealed viral sequences of ten different virus families and orders: three bat nairoviruses, three phenuiviruses, one orbivirus, one rotavirus, one orthoreovirus, one mononegavirus, five parvoviruses, seven picornaviruses, three retroviruses, one totivirus and two thymoviruses were discovered. Of all viruses identified by family-specific PCR in the original samples, none was found by metagenomic sequencing. Vice versa, none of the viruses found by the metagenomic virome approach was detected by family-specific PCRs targeting the same family. The discrepancy of detected viruses by different detection approaches suggests that a combined approach using different detection methods is necessary for virus discovery studies.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral , Virome/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Germany , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Nairovirus/classification , Nairovirus/genetics , Orbivirus/classification , Orbivirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics
4.
Virol J ; 18(1): 110, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the most important contributions to COVID-19 crisis management. With the publication of the first sequences of SARS-CoV-2, several diagnostic PCR assays have been developed and published. In addition to in-house assays the market was flooded with numerous commercially available ready-to-use PCR kits, with both approaches showing alarming shortages in reagent supply. AIM: Here we present a resource-efficient in-house protocol for the PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patient specimens (RKI/ZBS1 SARS-CoV-2 protocol). METHODS: Two duplex one-step real-time RT-PCR assays are run simultaneously and provide information on two different SARS-CoV-2 genomic regions. Each one is duplexed with a control that either indicates potential PCR inhibition or proves the successful extraction of nucleic acid from the clinical specimen. RESULTS: Limit of RNA detection for both SARS-CoV-2 assays is below 10 genomes per reaction. The protocol enables testing specimens in duplicate across the two different SARS-CoV-2 PCR assays, saving reagents by increasing testing capacity. The protocol can be run on various PCR cyclers with several PCR master mix kits. CONCLUSION: The presented RKI/ZBS1 SARS-CoV-2 protocol represents a cost-effective alternative in times of shortages when commercially available ready-to-use kits may not be available or affordable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Mol Cell Probes ; 58: 101742, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220955

ABSTRACT

Point of care detection of SARS-CoV-2 is one pillar in a containment strategy and important to break infection chains. Here we report the sensitive, specific and robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 and respective variants of concern by the ID NOW COVID-19 device.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
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